University of Oulu

Wei, J., Geng, S., Kumar, M., Pitkänen, O., Hietala, M., & Oksman, K. (2019). Investigation of Structure and Chemical Composition of Carbon Nanofibers Developed From Renewable Precursor. Frontiers in Materials, 6.

Investigation of structure and chemical composition of carbon nanofibers developed from renewable precursor

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Author: Wei, Jiayuan1; Geng, Shiyu1; Kumar, Manish2;
Organizations: 1Wood and Bionanocomposites, Division of Materials Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
2Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Microelectronics Research Group, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-03-02


In this study, lignin-based carbon nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by carbonization at four different temperatures (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400°C). The surface and bulk elemental compositions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. In addition, the structure of the prepared carbon nanofibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, focused ion beam microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Results showed that all carbon nanofibers, irrespective of the carbonization temperature, had continuous and homogeneous structures. They were dense and no phase separation was observed. Moreover, the nanofibers carbonized at 800°C or 1,000°C predominately contained amorphous carbon and some non-carbon elements. When the carbonization was performed at a higher temperature (1,200°C or 1,400°C), non-carbon elements were effectively removed and nanocrystalline graphite was formed, indicating that high temperature carbonization facilitated the formation of ordered carbon structures.

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Series: Frontiers in materials
ISSN: 2296-8016
ISSN-E: 2296-8016
ISSN-L: 2296-8016
Volume: 6
Article number: 334
DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2019.00334
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors gratefully acknowledge Business Finland (Grelectronics), Bio4Energy (Swedish Strategy Research funding), and the Swedish Research Council (Carbon Lignin 2017-04240) for the financial support.
Copyright information: © 2019 Wei, Geng, Kumar, Pitkänen, Hietala and Oksman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.