University of Oulu

Alia, N., Pylvänäinen, M., Visuri, V. et al. Vibrations of a laboratory-scale gas-stirred ladle with two eccentric nozzles and multiple sensors. J. Iron Steel Res. Int. 26, 1031–1040 (2019).

Vibrations of a laboratory-scale gas-stirred ladle with two eccentric nozzles and multiple sensors

Saved in:
Author: Alia, Najib1; Pylvänäinen, Mika2; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri3;
Organizations: 1Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), Berlin, 10117, Germany
2Intelligent Machines and Systems, University of Oulu, Oulu, 90014, Finland
3Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, 90014, Finland
4Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, 14195, Germany
5SSAB Europe Oy, Raahe, 92101, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-03-06


During ladle stirring, a gas is injected into the steel bath to generate a mixing of the liquid steel. The optimal process control requires a reliable measurement of the stirring intensity, for which the induced ladle wall vibrations have proved to be a potential indicator. An experimental cold water ladle with two eccentric nozzles and eight mono-axial accelerometers was thus investigated to measure the vibrations. The effect of the sensors’ positions with respect to the gas plugs on the vibration intensity was analyzed, and experimental data on several points of the ladle were collected for future numerical simulations. It is shown that the vibration root-mean-square values depend not only on process parameters, such as gas flow rate, water, and oil heights, but also on the radial and axial positions of the sensors. The vibration intensity is clearly higher, close to the gas plumes, than in the opposite side. If one of the nozzles is clogged, the vibration intensity close to the clogged nozzle drops drastically (−36 to −59%), while the vibrations close to the normal operating nozzle are hardly affected. Based on these results, guidelines are provided for an optimized vibration-based stirring.

see all

Series: Journal of iron and steel research international
ISSN: 1006-706X
ISSN-E: 2210-3988
ISSN-L: 1006-706X
Volume: 26
Pages: 1031 - 1040
DOI: 10.1007/s42243-019-00241-x
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: N. Alia is grateful for the support of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 675715 (MIMESIS). V.V. Visuri is grateful for the support of the Finnish Cultural Foundation.
EU Grant Number: (675715) MIMESIS - Mathematics and Materials Science for Steel Production and Manufacturing
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2019. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.