University of Oulu

Mäki, T., Oura, P., Paananen, M. et al. Longitudinal Analysis of Paraspinal Muscle Cross-Sectional Area During Early Adulthood – A 10-Year Follow-Up MRI Study. Sci Rep 9, 19497 (2019).

Longitudinal analysis of paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area during early adulthood : a 10-year follow-up MRI study

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Author: Mäki, Teemu1,2,3; Oura, Petteri1,2,3; Paananen, Markus2,3;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
5Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland
6Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
8Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-03-06


Only a few previous studies have investigated paraspinal musculature (i.e., multifidus (MF), psoas major (PSM), erector spinae (ES)) in longitudinal, population-based settings. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the paraspinal muscles between the ages of 20 and 30 years. The study population consisted of a sub-cohort from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 298; 156 men, 142 women). Baseline magnetic resonance imaging was performed at a mean age of 21.3 years and follow-up imaging at 30.6 years. The CSA measurements were performed by tracing the paraspinal muscle outlines individually (MF, ES, PM) and all combined (total muscle area (TMA)) at the L4 cranial endplate level. The longitudinal data analysis was performed using generalized estimating equations modelling. The CSA of MF and ES increased during the follow-up among both sexes (men: MF + 5.7%, p < 0.001; ES + 2.7%, p = 0.001; and women: MF + 10.5%, p < 0.001; ES 9.2%, p = 0.001). The CSA of PM decreased among men (PM −4.0%, p < 0.001) but not among women (PM + 0.5%, p = 0.553). TMA increased significantly only among women (men: +0.5%, p = 0.425; women: +6.5%, p < 0.001). The increases in ES and TMA were more distinct among women than men (p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated clear age- and sex-related changes in paraspinal muscle size in early adulthood.

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Series: Scientific reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
ISSN-E: 2045-2322
ISSN-L: 2045-2322
Volume: 9
Issue: 1
Article number: 19497
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-56186-4
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
217 Medical engineering
Funding: We thank all the cohort members and researchers who participated in the study. We also wish to acknowledge the work of the NFBC project center. EU QLG1-CT-2000–01643 (EUROBLCS) Grant No. E51560, NorFA Grant No. 731, 20056, 30167, USA/NIHH 2000 G DF682 Grant No. 50945.
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