University of Oulu

V. A. Acciari et al 2019 ApJ 883 135. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a51

Constraints on gamma-ray and neutrino emission from NGC 1068 with the MAGIC telescopes

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Author: Acciari, V. A.1,2; Ansoldi, S.3,4,5,6,7,8; Antonelli, L. A.9;
Engels, A. Arbet10; Baack, D.11; Babic, A.12,13,14,15,16; Banerjee, B.17; de Almeida, U. Barres18,19; Barrio, J. A.20; Becerra Gonzalez, J.1,2; Bednarek, W.21; Bellizzi, L.22,23; Bernardini, E.24,25,26,27; Berti, A.3,4,28; Besenrieder, J.18; Bhattacharyya, W.26; Bigongiari, C.9; Biland, A.10; Blanch, O.29; Bonnoli, G.22,23; Bosnjak, Z.30,31,32,33,34; Busetto, G.24,25; Carosi, R.35,36; Ceribella, G.18; Chai, Y.18; Chilingaryan, A.37; Cikota, S.30,31,32,33,34; Colak, S. M.29; Colin, U.18; Colombo, E.1,2; Contreras, J. L.20; Cortina, J.29; Covino, S.9; D'Elia, V9; Da Vela, P.22,23; Dazzi, F.9; De Angelis, A.24,25; De Lotto, B.3,4; Delfino, M.29,38; Delgado, J.29; Depaoli, D.39; Di Pierro, F.24,25; Di Venere, L.39; Do Souto Espineira, E.29; Prester, D. Dominis12,13,14,15,16; Donini, A.3,4; Dorner, D.40; Doro, M.24,25; Elsaesser, D.11; Ramazani, V. Fallah41,42,43; Fattorini, A.11; Ferrara, G.9; Fidalgo, D.20; Foffano, L.24,25; Fonseca, M., V20; Font, L.44,45; Fruck, C.18; Fukami, S.5,6,7,8; Garcia Lopez, R. J.1,2; Garczarczyk, M.26; Gasparyan, S.37; Gaug, M.44,45; Giglietto, N.39; Giordano, F.39; Godinovic, N.12,13,14,15,16; Green, D.18; Guberman, D.29; Hadasch, D.5,6,7,8; Hahn, A.18; Herrera, J.1,2; Hoang, J.20; Hrupec, D.12,13,14,15,16; Hutten, M.18; Inada, T.5,6,7,8; Inoue, S.5,6,7,8; Ishio, K.18; Iwamura, Y.5,6,7,8; Jouvin, L.29; Kerszberg, D.29; Kubo, H.5,6,7,8; Kushida, J.5,6,7,8; Lamastra, A.9; Lelas, D.12,13,14,15,16; Leone, F.9; Lindfors, E.41,42,43; Lombardi, S.9; Longo, F.3,4,28; Lopez, M.20; Lopez-Coto, R.46,47; Lopez-Oramas, A.1,2; Loporchio, S.39; Fraga, B. Machado de Oliveira19; Maggio, C.44,45; Majumdar, P.17; Makariev, M.48; Mallamaci, M.24,25; Maneva, G.48; Manganaro, M.1,2; Mannheim, K.40; Maraschi, L.9; Mariotti, M.24,25; Martinez, M.29; Mazin, D.5,6,7,8,18; Micanovic, S.30,31,32,33,34; Miceli, D.3,4; Minev, M.48; Miranda, J. M.22,23; Mirzoyan, R.18; Molina, E.49; Moralejo, A.29; Morcuende, D.46,47; Moreno, V44,45; Moretti, E.29; Munar-Adrover, P.44,45; Neustroev, V41,42,43; Nigro, C.26; Nilsson, K.41,42,43; Ninci, D.29; Nishijima, K.5,6,7,8; Noda, K.5,6,7,8; Nogues, L.29; Nozaki, S.5,6,7,8; Paiano, S.24,25; Palacio, J.29; Palatiello, M.3,4; Paneque, D.18; Paoletti, R.22,23; Paredes, J. M.50; Peil, P.20; Peresano, M.3,4; Persic, M.3,4,51,52; Moroni, P. G. Prada35,36; Prandini, E.24,25; Puljak, I12,13,14,15,16; Rhode, W.11; Ribo, M.50; Rico, J.29; Righi, C.9; Rugliancich, A.22,23; Saha, L.20; Sahakyan, N.37; Saito, T.5,6,7,8; Sakurai, S.5,6,7,8; Satalecka, K.26; Schmidt, K.11; Schweizer, T.18; Sitarek, J.21; Snidaric, I12,13,14,15,16; Sobczynska, D.21; Somero, A.1,2; Stamerra, A.9; Strom, D.18; Strzys, M.18; Suda, Y.18; Suric, T.12,13,14,15,16; Takahashi, M.5,6,7,8; Tavecchio, F.9; Temnikov, P.48; Terzic, T.12,13,14,15,16; Teshima, M.5,6,7,8,18; Torres-Alba, N.50; Tosti, L.39; Vagelli, V.39; van Scherpenberg, J.18; Vanzo, G.1,2; Vazquez Acosta, M.1,2; Vigorito, C. F.39; Vitale, V.39; Vovk, I18; Will, M.18; Zaric, D.12,13,14,15,16; Fiore, F.53; Feruglio, C.53; Rephaeli, Y.54,55
Organizations: 1Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
2Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain.
3Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
4INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
5Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAG Consortium, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
6Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Japanese MAG Consortium, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
7Tokai Univ, Japanese MAG Consortium, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.
8RIKEN, Japanese MAG Consortium, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan.
9Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
10Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
11Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
12Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAG Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
13Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAG Consortium, Split 21000, Croatia.
14Univ Zagreb FER, Croatian MAG Consortium, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
15Univ Osijek, Croatian MAG Consortium, Osijek 31000, Croatia.
16Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatian MAG Consortium, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
17HBNI, Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1 AF Bidhannagar,Sect 1, Kolkata 700064, India.
18Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
19URCA, CBPF, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
20Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
21Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
22Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
23INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
24Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
25Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
26DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
27Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
28Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
29BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
30Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Croatian Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
31Univ Split FESB, Croatian Consortium, Split 21000, Croatia.
32Univ Zagreb FER, Croatian Consortium, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
33Univ Osijek, Croatian Consortium, Osijek 31000, Croatia.
34Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatian Consortium, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
35Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
36INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
37ICRANet Armenia NAS RA, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.
38PIC, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.
39Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-00044 Rome, Italy.
40Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
41Univ Turku, Finnish Mag Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikio, Finland.
42Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikio, Finland.
43Univ Oulu, Finnish Mag Consortium, Astron Div, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
44Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
45Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
46Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS Inst, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
47Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
48Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
49Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICCUB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
50Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
51Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, Bologna, Italy.
52Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy.
53INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy.
54Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Tel Aviv, Israel.
55Univ Calif San Diego, CASS, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe202003097683
Language: English
Published: IOP Publishing, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-03-09
Description:

Abstract

Starburst galaxies and star-forming active galactic nuclei are among the candidate sources thought to contribute appreciably to the extragalactic gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds. NGC 1068 is the brightest of the star-forming galaxies found to emit gamma-rays from 0.1 to 50 GeV. Precise measurements of the high-energy spectrum are crucial to study the particle accelerators and probe the dominant emission mechanisms. We have carried out 125 hr of observations of NGC 1068 with the MAGIC telescopes in order to search for gamma-ray emission in the very-high-energy band. We did not detect significant gamma-ray emission, and set upper limits at the 95% confidence level to the gamma-ray flux above 200 GeV f < 5.1 × 10−13 cm−2 s−1. This limit improves previous constraints by about an order of magnitude and allows us to put tight constraints on the theoretical models for the gamma-ray emission. By combining the MAGIC observations with the Fermi-LAT spectrum we limit the parameter space (spectral slope, maximum energy) of the cosmic ray protons predicted by hadronuclear models for the gamma-ray emission, while we find that a model postulating leptonic emission from a semi-relativistic jet is fully consistent with the limits. We provide predictions for IceCube detection of the neutrino signal foreseen in the hadronic scenario. We predict a maximal IceCube neutrino event rate of 0.07 yr−1.

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Series: Astrophysical journal
ISSN: 0004-637X
ISSN-E: 1538-4357
ISSN-L: 0004-637X
Volume: 883
Article number: 135
DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a51
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a51
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Subjects:
Funding: The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2015-69818-P, FPA2012-36668, FPA2015-68378-P, FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-6-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2015-71662-C2-2-P, FPA201790566REDC), the Indian Department of Atomic Energy, the Japanese JSPS and MEXT, the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-153/28.08.2018, and the Academy of Finland grant No. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" MDM-2014-0369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382, and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ.
Copyright information: © 2019. The American Astronomical Society.