University of Oulu

C. Perfecto, M. S. Elbamby, J. D. Ser and M. Bennis, "Taming the Latency in Multi-User VR 360°: A QoE-Aware Deep Learning-Aided Multicast Framework," in IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 2491-2508, April 2020,

Taming the latency in multi-user VR 360° : a QoE-aware deep learning-aided multicast framework

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Author: Perfecto, Cristina1; Elbamby, Mohammed S.2; Del Ser, Javier1,3;
Organizations: 1University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain
2Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Finland
3ECNALIA and with the Basque Center for Applied Mathematics (BCAM), Spain
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-03-18


Immersive virtual reality (VR) applications require ultra-high data rate and low-latency for smooth operation. Hence in this paper, aiming to improve VR experience in multi-user VR wireless video streaming, a deep-learning aided scheme for maximizing the quality of the delivered video chunks with low-latency is proposed. Therein the correlations in the predicted field of view (FoV) and locations of viewers watching 360∘ HD VR videos are capitalized on to realize a proactive FoV-centric millimeter wave (mmWave) physical-layer multicast transmission. The problem is cast as a frame quality maximization problem subject to tight latency constraints and network stability. The problem is then decoupled into an HD frame request admission and scheduling subproblems and a matching theory game is formulated to solve the scheduling subproblem by associating requests from clusters of users to mmWave small cell base stations (SBSs) for their unicast/multicast transmission. Furthermore, for realistic modeling and simulation purposes, a real VR head-tracking dataset and a deep recurrent neural network (DRNN) based on gated recurrent units (GRUs) are leveraged. Extensive simulation results show how the content-reuse for clusters of users with highly overlapping FoVs brought in by multicasting reduces the VR frame delay in 12%. This reduction is further boosted by proactiveness that cuts by half the average delays of both reactive unicast and multicast baselines while preserving HD delivery rates above 98%. Finally, enforcing tight latency bounds shortens the delay-tail as evinced by 13% lower delays in the 99th percentile.

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Series: IEEE transactions on communications
ISSN: 0090-6778
ISSN-E: 1558-0857
ISSN-L: 0090-6778
Volume: 68
Issue: 4
Pages: 2491 - 2508
DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2020.2965527
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This research was supported in part by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (MINECO) under grant TEC2016-80090-C2-2-R (5RANVIR), in part by the INFOTECH project NOOR, by the Kvantum institute strategic project SAFARI, by the Academy of Finland projects CARMA, MISSION, SMARTER and 6Genesis Flagship (grant no. 318927).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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