University of Oulu

Sanna Turunen, Susanna Kaisto, Ilya Skovorodkin, Vladimir Mironov, Tomi Kalpio, Seppo Vainio, Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska. 3D bioprinting of the kidney—hype or hope?. AIMS Cell and Tissue Engineering, 2018, 2(3): 119-162. doi: 10.3934/celltissue.2018.3.119.

3D bioprinting of the kidney : hype or hope?

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Author: Turunen, Sanna1,2; Kaisto, Susanna3; Skovorodkin, Ilya3;
Organizations: 13DTech Oy, Hyvoninkatu 1, 24240 Salo, Finland
2Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering Group, BioMediTech and Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere, Finland
3Biocenter Oulu, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, Aapistie 5, 90220 Oulu, Finland
43D Bioprinting Solutions, 68/2 Kashirskoe highway, 115409 Moscow, Russia
5Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov Medical University, Trubetzkaya Street 7, 119991, Moscow, Russia
6Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Biocenter Oulu, InfoTech Oulu, Oulu University and Biobank Borealis of Northern Finland, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 2018
Publish Date: 2020-03-19


Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an evolving technique that is expected to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine. Since the organ donation does not meet the demands for transplantable organs, it is important to think of another solution, which may and most likely will be provided by the technology of 3D bioprinting. However, even smaller parts of the printed renal tissue may be of help, e.g. in developing better drugs. Some simple tissues such as cartilage have been printed with success, but a lot of work is still required to successfully 3D bioprint complex organs such as the kidneys. However, few obstacles still persist such as the vascularization and the size of the printed organ. Nevertheless, many pieces of the puzzle are already available and it is just a matter of time to connect them together and 3D bioprint the kidneys. The 3D bioprinting technology provides the precision and fast speed required for generating organs. In this review, we describe the recent developments in the field of developmental biology concerning the kidneys; characterize the bioinks available for printing and suitable for kidney printing; present the existing printers and possible printing strategies. Moreover, we identify the most difficult challenges in printing of the kidneys and propose a solution, which may lead to successful bioprinting of the kidney.

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Series: AIMS cell and tissue engineering
ISSN: 2574-0105
ISSN-E: 2574-0105
ISSN-L: 2574-0105
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Pages: 119 - 162
DOI: 10.3934/celltissue.2018.3.119
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
3111 Biomedicine
Funding: This work was supported by the Finnish Cultural Foundation (personal research grant #00180086 to S.T. and personal research grant #00160821 to A.R-R), by the Academy of Finland grants (#206038, #121647, #250900 & #260056), and by the Centre of Excellence grant 2012–2017 from the Academy of Finland (#251314).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 121647
Detailed Information: 121647 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
250900 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
260056 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
251314 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (