University of Oulu

Xu, H., Shiokawa, K., Oyama, S. et al. High-latitude thermospheric wind study using a Fabry–Perot interferometer at Tromsø in Norway: averages and variations during quiet times. Earth Planets Space 71, 110 (2019).

High-latitude thermospheric wind study using a Fabry-Perot interferometer at Tromsø in Norway : averages and variations during quiet times

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Author: Xu, Heqiucen1; Shiokawa, Kazuo1; Oyama, Shin-ichiro1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (ISEE), Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan
2Space and Upper Atmospheric Sciences Group, National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3, Midori-cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo, 190-8518, Japan
3University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, Linnanmaa, 90540, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-03-23


The average winds in the thermosphere during geomagnetically quiet times are important because they provide a baseline wind in the upper atmosphere, but they remain insufficiently understood at high latitudes. This paper reports the first direct ground-based wind measurements of the quiet-time thermospheric wind pattern at Tromsø in Norway using 2009–2015 data from a Fabry–Perot interferometer. We analyzed red-line wind measurements (630.0 nm; altitude: 200–300 km). On average, the zonal wind shows a decrease of eastward wind compared with diurnal tidal wind before midnight. A maximum speed of 100 m/s occurs at both the dusk and dawn sides. The meridional wind has a diurnal tide structure with a minimum value of − 130 m/s around midnight. We also found occasional large wind deviations (> 100 m/s) from the averages, even during geomagnetically quiet times. We suggest that these large wind deviations are caused by the plasma convection associated with weak substorm activities with auroral electrojet (AE) index values of less than 100 nT that occurred at local times different from that at Tromsø.

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Series: Earth, planets and space
ISSN: 1343-8832
ISSN-E: 1880-5981
ISSN-L: 1343-8832
Volume: 71
Issue: 1
Article number: 110
DOI: 10.1186/s40623-019-1093-8
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (15H05815 and 16H06286). We are grateful for the support of the Leadership Development Program for Space Exploration and Research at Nagoya University.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.