University of Oulu

Xu, Y., Ahokangas, P., Reuter, E. (2018), EaaS: Electricity as a Service?, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 1-23.

EaaS : electricity as a service?

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Author: Xu, Yueqiang1; Ahokangas, Petri1; Reuter, Emmanuelle2
Organizations: 1Oulu Business School Martti Ahtisaari Institute University of Oulu, Finland
2University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Management
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Aalborg University, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-03-24


1. Purpose: Innovative business models have been transforming and disrupting traditional industries in an unprecedented speed. The energy industry is no exception. The advent of smart grid has initiated paradigm shifts from traditional product-based business models to service provision. An essential question is that, “How can energy industry create and capture new value from service business, turning the existing product-based business model to service orientation?”

2. Research gaps: This study addresses research gaps regarding 1) the value perspective for business model; 2) the ecosystem thinking for complex industries; 3) maximising systemic value for an ecosystem rather than a focal firm.

3. Research design, data collection, and approach: The study collects business model case data from BRIDGE, a high-level initiative of the European Commission uniting 31 major European energy projects. The research includes the full 50 business model cases contributed by experts from 15 EU Horizon 2020 innovation projects.

4. Findings: The study utilises the 4C ecosystemic framework and the XaaS (Everything as a Service) digital service business model typologies. A key outcome is the proposition of Electricity as a Service (EaaS) concept with four service business model typologies for the energy sector, proposing a new service business paradigm for the energy ecosystem.

5. Originality and value: The study proposes a value-based approach and service-dominant logic towards business model research at ecosystemic level. For the first time, the study introduces the XaaS service business typologies, investigating how this well-established ICT (Information and Communication Technology) business concept can enable the digitalisation of the energy industry.

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Series: Journal of business models
ISSN: 2246-2465
ISSN-E: 2246-2465
ISSN-L: 2246-2465
Volume: 6
Issue: 3
Pages: 1 - 23
DOI: 10.5278/ojs.jbm.v6i3.1954
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Funding: This research has been supported by the European Union Horizon 2020 program. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the H2020 P2P SmarTest and H2020 Empower project consortiums. This research is part of the activities of SCCER CREST, which is financially supported by the Swiss Commission for Technology and Innovation (CTI).
EU Grant Number: (646469) P2P-SmarTest - Peer to Peer Smart Energy Distribution Networks (P2P-SmartTest)
Copyright information: Articles published in Journal of Business Models follow the license Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0). Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd). Further information about Creative Commons