Dobewall, H., Savelieva, K., Seppälä, I., Knafo‐Noam, A., Hakulinen, C., Elovainio, M., Keltikangas‐Järvinen, L., Pulkki‐Råback, L., Raitakari, O.T., Lehtimäki, T. and Hintsanen, M. (2019), Gene–environment correlations in parental emotional warmth and intolerance: genome‐wide analysis over two generations of the Young Finns Study. J Child Psychol Psychiatr, 60: 277-285. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12995
Gene–environment correlations in parental emotional warmth and intolerance : genome‐wide analysis over two generations of the Young Finns Study
|Author:||Dobewall, Henrik1,2; Savelieva, Kateryna1; Seppälä, Ilkka3;|
1Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2Faculty of Social Sciences, Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
4Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
5Research Collegium for Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
6Unit of Psychology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe202003259260
John Wiley & Sons,
|Publish Date:|| 2020-03-25
Background: Genomic analysis of the child might offer new potential to illuminate human parenting. We examined whether offspring (G2) genome‐wide genotype variation (SNPs) is associated with their mother’s (G1) emotional warmth and intolerance, indicating a gene–environment correlation. If this association is stronger than between G2’s genes and their emotional warmth and intolerance toward their own children, then this would indicate the presence of an evocative gene–environment correlation. To further understand how G1 mother’s parenting has been evoked by genetically influenced characteristics of the child (G2), we examined whether child (G2) temperament partially accounted for the association between offspring genes and parental responses.
Methods: Participants were from the Young Finns Study. G1 mothers (N = 2,349; mean age 39 years) self‐reported the emotional warmth and intolerance toward G2 in 1980 when the participants were from 3 to 18 years old. G2 participants answered the same parenting scales in 2007/2012 (N = 1,378; mean age = 38 years in 2007; 59% female) when their children were on average 11 years old. Offspring temperament traits were self‐reported in 1992 (G2 age range 15–30 years). Estimation of the phenotypic variance explained by the SNPs of G2 was done by genome‐wide complex trait analysis with restricted maximum likelihood (GCTA‐GREML).
Results: Results showed that the SNPs of a child (G2) explained 22.6% of the phenotypic variance of maternal intolerance (G1; p‐value = 0.039). G2 temperament trait negative emotionality explained only 2.4% points of this association. G2 genes did not explain G1 emotional warmth or G2’s own emotional warmth and intolerance. However, further analyses of a combined measure of both G1 parenting scales found genetic effects. Parent or child gender did not moderate the observed associations.
Conclusions: Presented genome‐wide evidence is pointing to the important role a child plays in affecting and shaping his/her family environment, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
Journal of child psychology and psychiatry
|Pages:||277 - 285|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
The Young Finns Study has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland: grants 258578 (M.H.), 265869 (Mind), 286284, 134309 (Eye), 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117787 (Gendi), and 41071 (Skidi); the Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospitals (grant X51001); Juho Vainio Foundation; Paavo Nurmi Foundation; Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research; Finnish Cultural Foundation; Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation; Emil Aaltonen Foundation; Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation (T.L. and L.P.‐R.), Diabetes Research Foundation of Finnish Diabetes Association; and EU Horizon 2020 (grant 755320 for TAXINOMISIS). This study was further supported by a European Research Council starting grant 240994 (A.K.‐N.).
© 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Dobewall, H., Savelieva, K., Seppälä, I., Knafo‐Noam, A., Hakulinen, C., Elovainio, M., Keltikangas‐Järvinen, L., Pulkki‐Råback, L., Raitakari, O.T., Lehtimäki, T. and Hintsanen, M. (2019), Gene–environment correlations in parental emotional warmth and intolerance: genome‐wide analysis over two generations of the Young Finns Study. J Child Psychol Psychiatr, 60: 277-285, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12995. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.