University of Oulu

Echterhof, T.; Willms, T.; Preiss, S.; Aula, M.; Abdelrahim, A.; Fabritius, T.; Mombelli, D.; Mapelli, C.; Steinlechner, S.; Unamuno, I. Fabrication of Agglomerates from Secondary Raw Materials Reinforced with Paper Fibres by Stamp Pressing Process. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3946.

Fabrication of agglomerates from secondary raw materials reinforced with paper fibres by stamp pressing process

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Author: Echterhof, Thomas1; Willms, Thomas1; Preiss, Stefan2;
Organizations: 1Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2MFG Metall-und Ferrolegierungsgesellschaft mbH Hafner, Blondin & Tidou, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 9, 40670 Meerbusch, Germany
3Process Metallurgy Group, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 1, 20156 Milano, Italy
5Chair of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria
6Sidenor Investigacion Y Desarrollo SA, Barrio Ugarte s/n, 48970 Basauri, Spain
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-03-27


The use of secondary raw materials in metallurgical processes such as steelmaking is an important contribution to the circular economy aspired to by EU members and many other countries. The agglomeration of dusts, fines and sludges is an important pretreatment step to enable the use of these materials in subsequent melting processes, such as steelmaking in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). It also reduces the amount of by-products and waste materials that are currently waste for disposal and are landfilled. The presented research is part of the Fines2EAF project, which aims to increase the value of steelmaking residues by internal recycling and use or reuse in the form of agglomerates. The approach followed in this project is the use of a hydraulic stamp press and alternative binder systems to produce cement-free agglomerates. The first results of lab-scale agglomeration tests of six different recipes with varying pressing forces are presented in this paper. It is shown that the addition of fibres from paper recycling has a strong effect on the cold compression stability of the agglomerates, by far exceeding other effects such as increased pressing force. Overall, the agglomerates produced in the lab show promising characteristics, for example, cold compression stability and abrasion resistance, which should allow for use in EAF steelmaking.

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Series: Applied sciences
ISSN: 2076-3417
ISSN-E: 2076-3417
ISSN-L: 2076-3417
Volume: 9
Issue: 19
Article number: 3946
DOI: 10.3390/app9193946
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This project received funding from the European Commission from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel under grant agreement no. 754197. This paper reflects only the authors’ view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (