University of Oulu

Lik Hang Lee, Tristan Braud, Kit Yung Lam, Yui Pan Yau, Pan Hui, From seen to unseen: Designing keyboard-less interfaces for text entry on the constrained screen real estate of Augmented Reality headsets, Pervasive and Mobile Computing, Volume 64, 2020, 101148, ISSN 1574-1192,

From seen to unseen : designing keyboard-less interfaces for text entry on constrained screen real estate of Augmented Reality headsets

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Author: Lee, Lik Hang1,2; Braud, Tristan1; Lam, Kit Yung1;
Organizations: 1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
2Center for Ubiquitous Computing, The University of Oulu, Finland
3Department of Computer Science, The University of Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2022-03-19


Text input is a very challenging task in the constrained screen real-estate of Augmented Reality headsets. Typical keyboards spread over multiple lines and occupy a significant portion of the screen. In this article, we explore the feasibility of single-line text entry systems for smartglasses. We first design FITE, a dynamic keyboard where the characters are positioned depending on their probability within the current input. However, the dynamic layout leads to mediocre text input and low accuracy. We then introduce HIBEY, a fixed 1-line solution that further decreases the screen real-estate usage by hiding the layout. Despite its hidden layout, HIBEY surprisingly performs much better than FITE, and achieves a mean text entry rate of 9.95 words per minute (WPM) with 96.06% accuracy, which is comparable to other state-of-the-art approaches. After 8 days, participants achieve an average of 13.19 WPM. In addition, HIBEY only occupies 13.14% of the screen real estate at the edge region, which is 62.80% smaller than the default keyboard layout on Microsoft Hololens.

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Series: Pervasive and mobile computing
ISSN: 1574-1192
ISSN-E: 1873-1589
ISSN-L: 1574-1192
Volume: 64
Article number: 101148
DOI: 10.1016/j.pmcj.2020.101148
Type of Publication: B1 Journal article
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This research has been supported in part by project 16214817 from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship [grant number: 318927], and the 5GEAR project from the Academy of Finland ICT 2023 programme.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license