University of Oulu

Omran, M.; Fabritius, T.; Yu, Y.; Chen, G. Thermal and Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of BF and BOF Sludges: Study of Their Behavior under Air and Inert Atmosphere. Metals 2020, 10, 397.

Thermal and mass spectroscopic analysis of BF and BOF sludges : study of their behavior under air and inert atmosphere

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Author: Omran, Mamdouh1,2; Fabritius, Timo1; Yu, Yaowei2;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201900, China
3Key Laboratory of Green-Chemistry Materials in University of Yunnan Province, Kunming Key Laboratory of Energy Materials Chemistry, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-04-14


Differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG), and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to study the thermal behavior of the blast furnace (BF) and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludges generated from the iron-making industry. The results indicated that under air atmosphere the two types of sludge are different in their thermal behavior. In BF sludge, the exothermic carbon gasification (CO/CO₂) reaction dominated the process, while in BOF sludge, the significant reaction occurred at 755 °C and was associated with a slight mass gain owing to the partial oxidation of Fe₃O₄ to Fe₂O₃. Under inert atmosphere, the thermal behavior of both BF and BOF sludges were dominated by a reduction reaction. In BF sludge, the endothermic reactions ranged from 785 to 1115 °C due to the reduction of iron oxides as follows: Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe. A total mass loss of about 27.78% was observed in the TG curve. While in BOF sludge, the endothermic peaks corresponded to magnetite reduction to iron (Fe). The overall mass loss of the BOF was approximately 16.92%. The mass spectrum of gases evolution for both BF and BOF sludges revealed that CO/CO₂ gases were released from the sludges.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 10
Issue: 3
Article number: 397
DOI: 10.3390/met10030397
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was conducted within the Symbiosis of Metal Production and Nature (SYMMET) research program funded by Business Finland.
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (