Sirviö, J.A., Heiskanen, J.P. Room-temperature dissolution and chemical modification of cellulose in aqueous tetraethylammonium hydroxide–carbamide solutions. Cellulose 27, 1933–1950 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-019-02907-x
Room-temperature dissolution and chemical modification of cellulose in aqueous tetraethylammonium hydroxide–carbamide solutions
|Author:||Sirviö, Juho Antti1; Heiskanen, Juha P.2|
1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014, Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2020041416445
|Publish Date:|| 2020-04-14
The room-temperature dissolution of cellulose in aqueous tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH) in the presence of carbamides (ureas) was investigated. Without carbamide, 35 wt% TEAOH was able to dissolve cellulose (microcrystalline cellulose) up to 3 wt%, whereas carbamides—such as urea, N-methylurea, N-ethylurea, 1,3-dimethylurea, and imidazolidone—were able to improve the dissolution of cellulose. At 5 wt% cellulose concentration, the highest carbamide contents in the solvent still able to dissolve cellulose within 1 h were 56 and 55 wt% of 1,3-dimethylurea and N-methylurea, respectively. When using urea, up to 15% of cellulose could be dissolved in a solution containing 22 wt% of urea. To demonstrate the possibility of the use of a carbamide-based solvent in cellulose modification, cationic cellulose was produced using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTAC). At a molar ratio of 1:3 of cellulose and GTAC, all the studied TEAOH–carbamide solvents produce cationic cellulose with higher charge density compared to the reference NaOH–urea solvent.
|Pages:||1933 - 1950|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
216 Materials engineering
Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. J. A. S. thanks Kone Foundation for its financial support.
© The Author(s) 2019. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.