University of Oulu

Yrjö Perkkiö, Jari Jokelainen, Juha Auvinen, Pasi Eskola, Juha Saltevo, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi & Markku Timonen (2019) Glucose status and depressive symptoms: a cohort study of elderly people in northwest Finland, Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 37:2, 242-248, DOI: 10.1080/02813432.2019.1608050

Glucose status and depressive symptoms : a cohort study of elderly people in northwest Finland

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Author: Perkkiö, Yrjö1,2; Jokelainen, Jari1,3; Auvinen, Juha1,3;
Organizations: 1Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Health Centre of Muonio and Enontekiö, Muonio, Finland
3Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-04-16


Objective: To assess the association between depressive symptoms and impaired glucose metabolism in the elderly population in arctic latitudes.

Design: A population-based study. Setting. Community.

Subjects: The study population consisted of 1,830 subjects born between the years 1915 and 1958 in the northernmost part of Finland, the Muonio-Enontekiö district, who participated in a health survey during 1974–1984. In 2014, a health questionnaire was sent to 1,037 subjects, and 757 participants (73%) answered it. Those (n = 629) living in the Muonio-Enontekiö district undergone a clinical examination in 2014 and 2015 including blood collections.

Main outcome measures: Depressive symptoms defined by the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) with a cut-off point of 14. Different diabetic states based on WHO’s classification criteria defined by fasting plasma glucose and ADA’s criteria by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values.

Results: According to logistic regression analysis, depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 14) were associated statistically significantly with previously known type 2 diabetes, the odds ratio (OR) being 4.33 (95% CI 1.53–14.14). Regarding prediabetic fasting glucose/HbA1c values, the corresponding OR was 2.94 (95% CI 1.17–8.94). The prevalence of depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 14) was 7.1%, (men 9.7% and women 5.4%) and 13.7% (men 9.9% and women 17.0%) in subjects living in Muonio-Enontekiö district and in those who had moved away from there, respectively.

Conclusions: The association of depressive symptoms between prediabetes and diabetes seems to be present also in the northernmost latitudes of the world.

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Series: Scandinavian journal of primary health care
ISSN: 0281-3432
ISSN-E: 1502-7724
ISSN-L: 0281-3432
Volume: 37
Issue: 2
Pages: 242 - 248
DOI: 10.1080/02813432.2019.1608050
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: The study received funding from: Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu. Health Centre of Muonio-Enontekiö, Muonio. Northern Finland Health Care Foundation, Oulu. Cultural Foundation of Finland. Yrjö Perkkiö, Kätkäsuvanto.
Copyright information: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.