University of Oulu

Lin, Y., Yan, B., Fabritius, T. et al. Immobilization of Chromium in Stainless Steel Slag Using Low Zinc Electric Arc Furnace Dusts. Metall and Materi Trans B 51, 763–775 (2020).

Immobilization of chromium in stainless steel slag using low zinc electric arc furnace dusts

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Author: Lin, Yong1; Yan, Baijun1; Fabritius, Timo2;
Organizations: 1School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, People’s Republic of China
2Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-04-16


A new synergistic treatment of stainless steel slag and low zinc content electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts is proposed to immobilize harmful chromium in stainless steel slag. The effects of ZnFe₂O₄ addition on the mineralogic phase and chromium leachability of CaO-SiO₂-MgO-Al₂O₃-Cr₂O₃ synthetic slag were investigated to explore the feasibility of this method. The mineralogic phases in stainless steel slag were investigated by scanning microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The leaching concentration values of chromium and zinc were evaluated according to an alkaline digestion for the hexavalent chromium (US-EPA-3060A) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP, US-EPA-1311) method, respectively. It was found that all synthetic slags mainly contain α-Ca₂SiO₄, merwinite and spinel phase, in line with the calculation results by FactSage. The crystallization of spinel and merwinite phases was enhanced by the addition of ZnFe₂O₄ but suppressed the precipitation of α-Ca₂SiO₄. It was revealed that the leaching concentration of chromium was depressed by adding ZnFe₂O₄ and was far below the chemical limits defined in the French proposal for a criterion and evaluation methods for waste ecotoxicity (0.1 mg L−1). In addition, the zinc leaching concentration meets the sanitary landfill standard. The proposed synergistic treatment method was further validated on industrial stainless steel slags and EAF dusts. Experimental results indicated that the synergistic treatment method can immobilize chromium effectively and the final slags can be disposed of by sanitary landfilling or recycling as constructional materials. A schematic technologic route diagram of the synergistic treatment was also proposed.

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Series: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, Process metallurgy and materials processing science
ISSN: 1073-5615
ISSN-E: 1543-1916
ISSN-L: 1073-5615
Volume: 51
Pages: 763 - 775
DOI: 10.1007/s11663-020-01777-0
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC contract nos. 51774026, 51534001, 51774025) and the Academy of Finland for Genome of Steel Grant (No. 311934).
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit