University of Oulu

Launonen, A.M.; Vuollo, V.; Aarnivala, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Pirttiniemi, P.; Valkama, A.M.; Harila, V. Craniofacial Asymmetry from One to Three Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study with 3D Imaging. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 70.

Craniofacial asymmetry from one to three years of age : a prospective cohort study with 3D imaging

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Author: Launonen, Anniina M.1,2,3; Vuollo, Ville1,2,3; Aarnivala, Henri3,4,5;
Organizations: 1Department of Oral Development and Orthodontics, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Oral Development and Orthodontics, Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
3Medical Research Center Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
4Department of Children and Adolescents, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
5PEDEGO Research Group, 90220 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-04-28


Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is considered a risk factor for facial asymmetry. This cohort-based, prospective, follow-up study used three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry to assess the development of facial asymmetry in a normal birth cohort and to investigate the impact of DP on facial asymmetry for the age range of one to three years. The study sample consisted of 75 children: 35 girls (47%) and 40 (53%) boys recruited from Oulu University Hospital. A total of 23 (31%) subjects had a history of DP in infancy. 3D facial images were obtained at the mean (SD) age of 1.01 (0.04) year old at T1 and 3.02 (0.14) years old at T2. To determine facial asymmetry, both landmark-based and surface-based facial symmetry methods were used. As measured with the surface-based methods, upper facial symmetry improved from T1 to T2 (p < 0.05). As measured with the landmark-based methods, facial symmetry improved on the upper and lower jaw from T1 to T2 (p < 0.05). The asymmetric effect of DP on the upper parts of the face tends to correct spontaneously during growth. Results indicate that previous DP does not seem to transfer to facial or occlusal asymmetry at the age of three years old.

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Series: Journal of clinical medicine
ISSN: 2077-0383
ISSN-E: 2077-0383
ISSN-L: 2077-0383
Volume: 9
Issue: 1
Article number: 70
DOI: 10.3390/jcm9010070
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
3111 Biomedicine
Funding: This research was supported by The University of Oulu Scholarship Foundation, the Emil Aaltonen Foundation, and the Orthodontic Section of the Finnish Dental Association Apollonia.
Copyright information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (