University of Oulu

Lempiäinen, H.; Lappalainen, K.; Haverinen, J.; Tuuttila, T.; Hu, T.; Jaakkola, M.; Lassi, U. The Effect of Mechanocatalytic Pretreatment on the Structure and Depolymerization of Willow. Catalysts 2020, 10, 255.

The effect of mechanocatalytic pretreatment on the structure and depolymerization of willow

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Author: Lempiäinen, Henna1; Lappalainen, Katja1,2; Haverinen, Jasmiina3;
Organizations: 1Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyväskylä, Talonpojankatu 2B, 67100 Kokkola, Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Unit of Measurement Technology, Kajaani University Consortium, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 127, FI-87400 Kajaani, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 16.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-05-04


In this study, the effect of a mechanocatalytic pretreatment on the structure of willow and sugar release from pretreated willow was explored. In the mechanocatalytic approach, the pretreatment consists of solvent-free impregnation with sulfuric acid and a mechanical treatment with ball milling. Willow sawdust and pretreated samples were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The products in the sugar solution were determined as the total reducing sugars with the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method and monosaccharides with capillary electrophoresis. According to the results, milling increased the sugar production, depending on the sulfuric acid load. The milling parameters, such as the rotation speed of the mill, the catalyst-to-willow ratio, and the milling time influenced the amount of sugars in the hydrolysate and the composition of the sugar solution produced. Changes were observed in the surface of the willow particles as well as changes in the crystalline structure. Glucose and xylose yields increased after 15 min of milling and reached their maximum level after 45 min of milling with the 0.5 mmol/g sulfuric acid load.

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Series: Catalysts
ISSN: 2073-4344
ISSN-E: 2073-4344
ISSN-L: 2073-4344
Volume: 10
Issue: 2
Article number: 255
DOI: 10.3390/catal10020255
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This research was supported by the European Regional Development Fund, Leverage from the European Union program 2014-2020 (A71029, Biomass value chains) and the European Regional Development Fund, Interreg Botnia-Atlantica (20200327, Bioraff Botnia).
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (