University of Oulu

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, 8, 6471-6479,

The fox and the hound : in-depth and in-grain Na doping and Ga grading in Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ solar cells

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Author: Colombara, Diego1,2; Conley, Kevin3; Malitckaya, Maria3;
Organizations: 1Università degli Studi di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova, Italy
2International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga, Portugal
3Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P. O. Box 11000, 00076 Aalto, Finland
4Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-05-04


Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells require appropriate depth and lateral distributions of alkali metal dopants and gallium to attain world record photovoltaic energy conversion. The two requirements are interdependent because sodium is known to hamper In/Ga interdiffusion in polycrystalline films. However, such a fact is challenged by recent findings where sodium appears to enhance In/Ga interdiffusion in monocrystalline films. This contribution reviews closely the two cases to the benefits of grain boundary engineering in CIGS. A computational model reveals why Na induces In accumulation at CIGS grain boundaries, confining Ga to grain interiors. The positive technological implications for wider gap chalcopyrites are stressed.

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Series: Journal of materials chemistry. A, Materials for energy and sustainability
ISSN: 2050-7488
ISSN-E: 2050-7496
ISSN-L: 2050-7488
Volume: 8
Pages: 6471 - 6479
DOI: 10.1039/D0TA01103G
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: The Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg (FNR) is acknowledged for funding this research through the project GALDOCHS (Gas-phase alkali doping of chalcogenide semiconductors, C14/MS/8302176). INL and the European Commission are also acknowledged for funding the Nano Train for Growth II project no. 713640 through the Marie Curie Cofund programme.
Copyright information: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.