University of Oulu

Luukkonen, T., Yliniemi, J., Sreenivasan, H. et al. Ag- or Cu-modified geopolymer filters for water treatment manufactured by 3D printing, direct foaming, or granulation. Sci Rep 10, 7233 (2020).

Ag- or Cu-modified geopolymer filters for water treatment manufactured by 3D printing, direct foaming, or granulation

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Author: Luukkonen, Tero1,2; Yliniemi, Juho1; Sreenivasan, Harisankar1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, Oulu, 90014, Finland
2Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, via Marzolo, 9, Padua, 35131, Italy
3Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Aapistie 5 A, Oulu, 90220, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-05-05


In this work, we compared the main characteristics of highly porous geopolymer components for water treatment applications manufactured by 3D printing, direct foaming, or granulation. Furthermore, different approaches to impregnate the materials with Ag or Cu were evaluated to obtain filters with disinfecting or catalytic properties. The results revealed that all of the investigated manufacturing methods enabled the fabrication of components that possessed mesoporosity, suitable mechanical strength, and water permeability, even though their morphologies were completely different. Total porosity and compressive strength values were 28 vol% and 16 MPa for 3D-printed, 70–79 vol% and 1 MPa for direct-foamed, and 27 vol% and 10 MPa for granule samples. Both the filter preparation and the metal impregnation method affected the amount, oxidation state, and stability of Ag and Cu in the filters. However, it was possible to prepare filters with low metal leaching between a pH of 3–7, so that the released Ag and Cu concentrations were within drinking water standards.

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Series: Scientific reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
ISSN-E: 2045-2322
ISSN-L: 2045-2322
Volume: 10
Article number: 7233
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-64228-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland: grants #315103 and #322786. Part of the work was carried out with the support of the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 315103
Detailed Information: 315103 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
322786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit