University of Oulu

Simula, A.S., Ruokolainen, O., Oura, P. et al. Association of STarT Back Tool and the short form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire with multidimensional risk factors. Sci Rep 10, 290 (2020).

Association of STarT Back Tool and the short form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire with multidimensional risk factors

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Author: Simula, Anna Sofia1,2,3; Ruokolainen, Olli1,2; Oura, Petteri1,2;
Organizations: 1Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Faculty of Medicine, Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Department of General Medicine Mikkeli Central Hospital (Essote), Mikkeli, Finland
4Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
5Occupational Health Care Center Pihlajalinna, Tampere, Finland
6Oulunkaari Health Center, Ii, Finland
7Department of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Center for Health and Medical Psychology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
8Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
9Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-05-06


The Short form of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ-short) and the STarT Back Tool (SBT) have been developed to screen for risk factors for future low back pain (LBP) -related disability and work loss respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the accordance of the two questionnaires and to evaluate the accumulation of risk factors in the risk groups of both screening tools in a large population-based sample. The study population consisted of 3079 participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 who had reported LBP over the previous 12 months and had SBT and ÖMPSQ-short data. We evaluated the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hopkins symptom check list-25, Generalized anxiety disorder 7 questionnaire, and Beck’s Depression Inventory 21), psychological features (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), lifestyle characteristics (BMI, smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity) and social factors (education level) with the SBT and ÖMPSQ-short risk groups. The high-risk groups of both questionnaires were associated (p < 0.001) with depressive and anxiety symptoms and fear-avoidance beliefs. In addition, adverse lifestyle factors accumulated in the higher risk groups, especially from the ÖMPSQ-short. Agreement between the two questionnaires was moderate for men and fair for women.

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Series: Scientific reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
ISSN-E: 2045-2322
ISSN-L: 2045-2322
Volume: 10
Article number: 290
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-57105-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: The NFBC 1966 received financial support from the Academy of Finland; the University Hospital Oulu; the University of Oulu, Finland; the Northern Finland Health Care Foundation; the Duodecim Foundation (for JA) and the ERDF European Regional Development Fund - Well-being and health: Research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (Grant No. 539/2010 A31592, 01.01.2011-31.12.2013). This study was also funded by the Medical Research Center Oulu, and the University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit