S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, P. Keränen and J. Kostamovaara, "A 32 × 128 SPAD-257 TDC Receiver IC for Pulsed TOF Solid-State 3-D Imaging," in IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1960-1970, July 2020, doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2020.2970704
A 32 x 128 SPAD-257 TDC receiver IC for pulsed TOF solid-state 3-D imaging
|Author:||Jahromi, Sahba1; Jansson, Jussi-Pekka1; Keränen, Pekka1;|
1Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Circuits and Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.7 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2020050825689
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
|Publish Date:|| 2020-05-08
A single-chip receiver for pulsed laser direct time-of-flight 3-D imaging applications has been realized in a 0.35-μm HV CMOS technology. The chip includes a 32 x 128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array [35% fill factor (FF)] and 257 time-to-digital converters (TDCs) with a ~78-ps resolution. Two adjacent rows (2 x 128 SPADs) at a time can be selected for simultaneous measurement, i.e., 16 measurement cycles are needed to cover the whole array. SPADs are capable of operating in a gated mode in order to suppress dark and background light-induced detections. The IC was designed to be used in a solid-state 3-D imaging system with laser illumination concentrated in both time (short sub-ns pulses) and space (targeting only the active rows of the SPAD array). The performance of the receiver IC was characterized in a solid-state 3-D range imager with flood-pulsed illumination from a laser diode (LD)-based transmitter, which produced short [~150-ps full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] high-energy (~3.8-nJ pulse/~14-W peak power) pulses at a pulsing rate of 250 kHz when operating at a wavelength of 810 nm. Two detector/TDC ICs formed an 8k pixel receiver, targeting a field-of-view of ~42° x 21° by means of simple optics. Frame rates of up to 20 fps were demonstrated with a centimeter-level precision in the case of Lambertian targets within a range of 3.5 m.
IEEE journal of solid-state circuits
|Pages:||1960 - 1970|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
This work was supported by the Academy of Finland under Contracts 307362 (Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research) and 317144, and Business Finland, under contract no. 2773/31/2015.
|Academy of Finland Grant Number:||
307362 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
317144 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
© The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.