University of Oulu

S. Jahromi, J. Jansson, P. Keränen and J. Kostamovaara, "A 32 × 128 SPAD-257 TDC Receiver IC for Pulsed TOF Solid-State 3-D Imaging," in IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1960-1970, July 2020, doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2020.2970704

A 32 x 128 SPAD-257 TDC receiver IC for pulsed TOF solid-state 3-D imaging

Saved in:
Author: Jahromi, Sahba1; Jansson, Jussi-Pekka1; Keränen, Pekka1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Circuits and Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-05-08


A single-chip receiver for pulsed laser direct time-of-flight 3-D imaging applications has been realized in a 0.35-μm HV CMOS technology. The chip includes a 32 x 128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array [35% fill factor (FF)] and 257 time-to-digital converters (TDCs) with a ~78-ps resolution. Two adjacent rows (2 x 128 SPADs) at a time can be selected for simultaneous measurement, i.e., 16 measurement cycles are needed to cover the whole array. SPADs are capable of operating in a gated mode in order to suppress dark and background light-induced detections. The IC was designed to be used in a solid-state 3-D imaging system with laser illumination concentrated in both time (short sub-ns pulses) and space (targeting only the active rows of the SPAD array). The performance of the receiver IC was characterized in a solid-state 3-D range imager with flood-pulsed illumination from a laser diode (LD)-based transmitter, which produced short [~150-ps full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] high-energy (~3.8-nJ pulse/~14-W peak power) pulses at a pulsing rate of 250 kHz when operating at a wavelength of 810 nm. Two detector/TDC ICs formed an 8k pixel receiver, targeting a field-of-view of ~42° x 21° by means of simple optics. Frame rates of up to 20 fps were demonstrated with a centimeter-level precision in the case of Lambertian targets within a range of 3.5 m.

see all

Series: IEEE journal of solid-state circuits
ISSN: 0018-9200
ISSN-E: 1558-173X
ISSN-L: 0018-9200
Volume: 55
Issue: 7
Pages: 1960 - 1970
DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2020.2970704
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland under Contracts 307362 (Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research) and 317144, and Business Finland, under contract no. 2773/31/2015.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 307362
Detailed Information: 307362 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
317144 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see