University of Oulu

Shu, D.; Cui, X.; Li, Z.; Sun, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, X.; Dai, S.; Si, W. Effect of the Rare Earth Oxide CeO2 on the Microstructure and Properties of the Nano-WC-Reinforced Ni-Based Composite Coating. Metals 2020, 10, 383.

Effect of the rare earth oxide CeO₂ on the microstructure and properties of the nano-WC-reinforced Ni-based composite coating

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Author: Shu, Da1,2,3; Cui, Xiangxiang1; Li, Zhuguo2;
Organizations: 1School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000, China
2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3Research Center for Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
4School of Computer and Information, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-05-13


In this study, the addition of the rare earth oxide CeO₂ was investigated to alter the microstructural properties of the nano-WC-reinforced Ni-based composite coatings. The reinforced composite was prepared on the 42CrMo steel surface using a semiconductor laser. The morphology and microstructure of coatings were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Further, the digital microhardness tester and high-temperature friction and wear tester were used to observe the mechanical properties. The results indicated that the addition of CeO2 eliminated the cracks from the surface of the coatings and effectively reduced the number of pores. The phases were mainly observed as γ-Ni(Fe) in a solid solution, and some residual WC and W₂C phases were observed. In addition, Fe₃C, Cr₂₃C₆, M₆C (M = W, Fe, and Ni), SiC and Cr₇C₃ composite carbides, Si₂W and NiW tungsten compounds, and CeFe₂- and CeNi₂-containing Ce complex compounds were formed on the coating. The rare earth oxide CeO₂ composite-modified coating mainly comprised dendrites, crystal cells, strips, and massive microstructures. The reinforced phases of the modified coating presented uniform dispersion distribution with the addition of 1% CeO₂, and the structures were significantly refined. The maximum microhardness of the modified coating was approximately 1560 HV0.2, which was approximately 20% higher than that of the unmodified composite coating. The minimum wear loss of the modified coating was 6.1 mg and the minimum frictional coefficient was approximately 0.23, which were better than those of the unmodified coating. The wear mechanism of the nano-WC-reinforced Ni-based coating was primarily adhesive, whereas that of the CeO₂ composite modified coating was mainly abrasive particle wear, which accompanied adhesive wear.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 10
Issue: 3
Article number: 383
DOI: 10.3390/met10030383
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
116 Chemical sciences
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was financially supported by the Nature Science Fund of Anhui Province (Grant No. 1908085ME128), the Anhui polytechnic university middle younger top-notch talent planned project of 2018, the Nature Science Foundation of Education Department of Anhui province (Grant No. KJ2018A0123), Key Projects of the University Talent Support Program (Grant No. gxyqZD19051), and the Open Fund of Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification (Grant No. MLPM2017-3).
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (