University of Oulu

Laitinen, T.T., Vahtera, J., Pahkala, K., Magnussen, C.G., Nuotio, J., Hutri‐Kähönen, N., Kivimäki, M., Lehtimäki, T., Jokinen, E., Laitinen, T., Tossavainen, P., Pentti, J., Viikari, J.S., Juonala, M. and Raitakari, O.T. (2020), Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Risk of Fatty Liver in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Hepatology, 71: 67-75. doi:10.1002/hep.30804

Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of fatty liver in adulthood : the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study

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Author: Laitinen, Tomi T.1,2,3; Vahtera, Jussi4; Pahkala, Katja1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
2Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
3Paavo Nurmi Centre, Sports & Exercise Medicine Unit, Department of Physical Activity and Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
4Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
5Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
6Department of Pediatrics, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
7Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
8Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
9Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center ‐ Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
10Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
11Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
12Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, PEDEGO Research Unit and MRC Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
13Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
14Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2020051938357
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-06-06
Description:

Abstract

Fatty liver is a preventable cause of liver failure, but early risk factors for adulthood fatty liver are poorly understood. We examined the association of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with adulthood fatty liver and tested adulthood risk factors of fatty liver as possible mediators of this link. The study population comprised 2,042 participants aged 3‐18 years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Follow‐up with repeated clinical examinations was 31 years. Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed using data from parents’ socioeconomic position and socioeconomic circumstances in participants’ residential neighborhoods, categorized as high versus low socioeconomic disadvantage. Fatty liver was determined by ultrasound during the last follow‐up (2011) at ages 34‐49 years. Childhood and adulthood risk factors, including metabolic biomarkers and lifestyle variables, were assessed in clinical examinations. A total of 18.9% of the participants had fatty liver in adulthood. High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with an increased risk of fatty liver (risk ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.42 [1.18‐1.70]; P = 0.0002). This association was robust to adjustment for age, sex, and childhood risk factors of fatty liver, including high body mass index, elevated insulin, and low birth weight (1.33 [1.09‐1.62]; P = 0.005). High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was also associated with the development of risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood. Adulthood risk factors linking childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with fatty liver included waist circumference (proportion mediated of the total effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, 45%), body mass index (40%), systolic blood pressure (29%), insulin (20%), physical activity (15%), triglycerides (14%), and red meat consumption (7%). Conclusion: Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with multiple risk factors of fatty liver and increased likelihood of fatty liver in adulthood.

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Series: Hepatology
ISSN: 0270-9139
ISSN-E: 1527-3350
ISSN-L: 0270-9139
Volume: 71
Issue: 1
Pages: 67 - 75
DOI: 10.1002/hep.30804
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1002/hep.30804
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Subjects:
Funding: Diabetes Research Foundation of Finnish Diabetes Association; Suomen Kulttuurirahasto; EU Horizon 2020. Grant Number: 755320; The Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Signe ja Ane Gyllenbergin Säätiö; Yrjö Jahnssonin Säätiö; Suomen Akatemia. Grant Numbers: 286284, 134309, 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378, 117787, 41071; Juho Vainion Säätiö; Paavo Nurmen Säätiö; Sydäntutkimussäätiö; Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospitals. Grant Number: X51001; the Social Insurance Institution of Finland; European Research Council. Grant Number: 742927; Tampere University Hospital Supporting Foundation; Emil Aaltosen Säätiö; Tampereen Tuberkuloosisäätiö; National Heart Foundation of Australia Future Leader Fellowship. Grant Number: 100849; Helsinki Institute of Life Sciences. Grant Number: 311492; US National Institute on Aging. Grant Number: R01AG056477.
Copyright information: © 2019 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Laitinen, T.T., Vahtera, J., Pahkala, K., Magnussen, C.G., Nuotio, J., Hutri‐Kähönen, N., Kivimäki, M., Lehtimäki, T., Jokinen, E., Laitinen, T., Tossavainen, P., Pentti, J., Viikari, J.S., Juonala, M. and Raitakari, O.T. (2020), Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Risk of Fatty Liver in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Hepatology, 71: 67-75, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.30804. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.