University of Oulu

Varila, T., Brännström, H., Kilpeläinen, P., Hellström, J., Romar, H., Nurmi, J., and Lassi, U. (2020) From Norway spruce bark to carbon foams : characterization, and applications. BioResources 15(2), 3651-3666. doi:10.15376/biores.15.2.3651-3666

From Norway spruce bark to carbon foams : characterization, and applications

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Author: Varila, Toni1,2; Brännström, Hanna3; Kilpeläinen, Petri4;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014, Finland
2Applied Chemistry, University of Jyvaskylä, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, P.O. Box 567, FI-67101 Kokkola, Finland
3Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland
4Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Tietotie 2, 02150 Espoo, Finland
5Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Humppilantie 7, FI-31600 Jokioinen, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: North Carolina State University, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-05-26


Fresh bark from spruce Picea abies was milled and extracted with hot water. The extracts were purified in a number of steps in order to get tannin-extracts pure enough to prepare tannin-based carbon foams. The chemical composition of the extracts were analyzed. The foams were maturated and thermally treated to obtain desired properties, such as specific surface area, porosity, and compressive strength. It was possible to produce carbon foams even if they contained carbohydrate impurities. Differences in the properties of the carbon foams such as compressive strength, specific surface areas, and pore size distributions might be related to the compositions of the extracts. The foams were finally activated chemically and physically and were tested in adsorption of methylene blue. Results from the adsorption tests showed that adsorption was highly related to the total pore volume and the amount of mesopores created inside the foam structure during the thermal treatment.

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Series: Bioresources
ISSN: 1930-2126
ISSN-E: 1930-2126
ISSN-L: 1930-2126
Volume: 15
Issue: 2
Pages: 3651 - 3666
DOI: 10.15376/biores.15.2.3651-3666
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: Toni Varila would like to thank the Green Bioraff Solutions Project (EU/Interreg/Botnia-Atlantica, 20201508) for funding this research. Authors from Natural Resources Institute Finland gratefully acknowledge financial support from EU/Interreg/Botnia-Atlantica within the framework of Tannins for wastewater treatment (TanWat) project (20201484).
Copyright information: BioResources follows an open-access policy of publication. Research articles, scholarly reviews, and editorial items accepted for publication by BioResources will be made available for viewing and download, without restriction and without charge, to users of the Internet. Such users are entitled to fair use of the material for research and educational purposes, but they do not have permission to publish or to sell the material or to quote it without attribution. The author(s) retain rights to use the submitted and published material without restriction.