University of Oulu

Abdelrahim, A., Iljana, M., Omran, M., Vuolio, T., Bartusch, H., & Fabritius, T. (2020). Influence of H2–H2O Content on the Reduction of Acid Iron Ore Pellets in a CO–CO2–N2 Reducing Atmosphere. ISIJ International, 60(10), 2206–2217.

Influence of H₂–H₂O content on the reduction of acid iron ore pellets in a CO–CO₂–N₂ reducing atmosphere

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Author: Abdelrahim, Ahmed1; Iljana, Mikko1; Omran, Mamdouh1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu 1, Oulu, 90014 Finland
2VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Düsseldorf, 40237 Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-06-11


Using hydrogen as a reducing agent for iron production has been the focus of several studies due to its environmental potential. The aim of this work is to study the influence of H₂–H₂O content in the gas phase on the reduction of acid iron ore pellets under simulated blast furnace conditions. Temperature and gas compositions for the experiments were determined with multi-point vertical probes in an industrial blast furnace. The results of the reduction tests show that higher temperatures and H₂ content increase the rate and extent of reduction. For all the gas and temperature combinations, morphological, mineralogical, and microstructure changes were observed using different characterization techniques. Microscopy images reveal that H₂–H₂O, in the gas phase, has a positive influence on reduction, with metallic iron forming at the pellet’s periphery and core at lower temperatures compared to CO–CO₂–N₂ reducing gas. Porosity and surface area changes were determined using a gas pycnometer and the BET method. The results indicate that increasing the reduction temperatures and H₂ content results in greater porosity and a larger surface area. Moreover, carbon deposition did not take place, even at lower temperatures. A rate minimum was detected for pellets reduced at 800°C, probably due to metallic iron formation, hindering the diffusion of reducing gases through the product iron layer.

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Series: ISIJ international
ISSN: 0915-1559
ISSN-E: 1347-5460
ISSN-L: 0915-1559
Volume: 60
Issue: 10
Pages: 2206 - 2217
DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2019-734
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This research is part of the Online Blast Furnace Stack Status Monitoring (StackMonitor) project, financed by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) of the European Community with Grant Agreement No. 709816.
Copyright information: © 2020 by The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs license (