University of Oulu

Selkälä, T., Suopajärvi, T., Sirviö, J., Luukkonen, T., Kinnunen, P., de Carvalho, A., Liimatainen, H. (2020) Surface Modification of Cured Inorganic Foams with Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals and Their Use as Reactive Filter Media for Anionic Dye Removal. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 24, 27745–27757,

Surface modification of cured inorganic foams with cationic cellulose nanocrystals and their use as reactive filter media for anionic dye removal

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Author: Selkälä, Tuula1; Suopajärvi, Terhi1; Sirviö, Juho Antti1;
Organizations: 1Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Clausthal Technical University, Department of Mineral and Waste Processing, Walther-Nernst-Straße 9, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 11.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-06-12


In this work, a surface cationized inorganic–organic hybrid foam was produced from porous geopolymer (GP) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). GPs were synthesized from alkali-activated metakaolin using H₂O₂ as a blowing agent and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant. These highly porous GPs were combined at pH 7.5 with cationic CNCs that had been synthesized from dissolving pulp through periodate oxidation followed by cationization in a deep eutectic solvent. The GP-CNC hybrid foams were employed as reactive filters in the removal of the anionic dye, methyl orange (MO; 5–10 mg/L, pH 7). The effects of a mild acid wash and thermal treatments on the structure, properties, and adsorption capacity of the GPs with CNCs and MO were investigated. The CNCs aligned as films and filaments on the surfaces of the neutralized GPs and the addition of CNCs improved MO removal by up to 84% compared with the reference sample. In addition, CTAB was found to disrupt the attachment of CNCs on the pores and improve adsorption of MO in the GPs with and without CNCs.

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Series: ACS applied materials & interfaces
ISSN: 1944-8244
ISSN-E: 1944-8252
ISSN-L: 1944-8244
Volume: 12
Issue: 24
Pages: 27745 - 27757
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c05927
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: Support from the Advanced Materials Doctoral Program of the University of Oulu Graduate School and the Bionanochemicals project of the Academy of Finland (327810) is acknowledged. P.K. acknowledges financial support from Academy of Finland (grants 322085 and 326291).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 327810
Detailed Information: 327810 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
322085 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
326291 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020 American Chemical Society. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.