University of Oulu

M. Aguilar et al. (AMS Collaboration), (2020) Properties of Neon, Magnesium, and Silicon Primary Cosmic Rays Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. Physical Review Letters, 124 (21), 211102.

Properties of neon, magnesium, and silicon primary cosmic rays results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

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Author: Aguilar, M.1; Cavasonza, L. Ali2,3; Ambrosi, G.4;
Arruda, L.5; Attig, N.6,7; Barao, F.5; Barrin, L.8; Bartoloni, A.9; Basegmez-du Pree, S.10,11; Battiston, R.12,13; Becker, U.14; Behlmann, M.14; Beischer, B.2,3; Berdugo, J.1; Bertucci, B.4,15; Bindi, V16; de Boer, W.17; Bollweg, K.18; Borgia, B.9,19; Boschini, M. J.20; Bourquin, M.21; Bueno, E. F.10; Burger, J.14; Burger, W. J.12; Burmeister, S.22; Cai, X. D.14; Capell, M.14; Casaus, J.1; Castellini, G.23; Cervelli, F.24; Chang, Y. H.25,26,27; Chen, G. M.28,29; Chen, H. S.28,29; Chen, Y.21; Cheng, L.30; Chou, H. Y.26,27; Chouridou, S.2,3; Choutko, V14; Chung, C. H.2,3; Clark, C.14,18; Coignet, G.31; Consolandi, C.16; Contin, A.32,33; Corti, C.16; Cui, Z.30,34; Dadzie, K.14; Dai, Y. M.35; Delgado, C.1; Della Torre, S.20; Demirkoz, M. B.36; Derome, L.37; Di Falco, S.24; Di Felice, V38,39; Diaz, C.1; Dimiccoli, F.12; von Doetinchem, P.16; Dong, F.40; Donnini, F.38,39; Duranti, M.4; Egorov, A.14; Eline, A.14; Feng, J.14; Fiandrini, E.4,15; Fisher, P.14; Formato, V38,39; Freeman, C.16; Galaktionov, Y.14; Gamez, C.1; Garcia-Lopez, R. J.41,42; Gargiulo, C.8; Gast, H.2,3; Gebauer, I17; Gervasi, M.20,43; Giovacchini, F.1; Gomez-Coral, D. M.16; Gong, J.40; Goy, C.31; Grabski, V44; Grandi, D.20,43; Graziani, M.4,15; Guo, K. H.45; Haino, S.25; Han, K. C.46; Hashmani, R. K.36; He, Z. H.45; Heber, B.22; Hsieh, T. H.14; Hu, J. Y.28,29; Huang, Z. C.45; Incagli, M.24; Jang, W. Y.47; Jia, Yi14; Jinchi, H.46; Kanishev, K.12; Khiali, B.38,39; Kim, G. N.47; Kirn, Th2,3; Konyushikhin, M.14; Kounina, O.14; Kounine, A.14; Koutsenko, V14; Kuhlman, A.16; Kulemzin, A.14; La Vacca, G.20,43; Laudi, E.8; Laurenti, G.32; Lazzizzera, I12,13; Lebedev, A.14; Lee, H. T.48; Lee, S. C.25; Li, J. Q.40; Li, M.2,3; Li, Q.40; Li, S.2,3; Li, T. X.45; Li, Z. H.28; Light, C.16; Lin, C. H.25; Lippert, T.6,7; Liu, Z.21; Lu, S. Q.45; Lu, Y. S.28; Luebelsmeyer, K.2,3; Luo, J. Z.40; Lyu, S. S.45; Machate, F.2,3; Mana, C.1; Marin, J.1; Marquardt, J.22; Martin, T.14,18; Martinez, G.1; Masi, N.32,33; Maurin, D.37; Menchaca-Rocha, A.44; Meng, Q.40; Mo, D. C.45; Molero, M.1; Mott, P.14,18; Mussolin, L.4,15; Ni, J. Q.45; Nikonov, N.2,3; Nozzoli, F.12; Oliva, A.32; Orcinha, M.5; Palermo, M.16; Palmonari, F.32,33; Paniccia, M.21; Pashnin, A.14; Pauluzzi, M.4,15; Pensotti, S.20,43; Phan, H. D.14; Piandani, R.17; Plyaskin, V14; Poluianov, S.49,50; Qi, X. M.45; Qin, X.14; Qu, Z. Y.25; Quadrani, L.32,33; Rancoita, P. G.20; Rapin, D.21; Conde, A. Reina41,42; Rosier-Lees, S.31; Rozhkov, A.14; Rozza, D.20,43; Sagdeev, R.51; Schael, S.2,3; Schmidt, S. M.6,7; von Dratzig, A. Schulz2,3; Schwering, G.2,3; Seo, E. S.52; Shan, B. S.53; Shi, J. Y.40; Siedenburg, T.2,3; Solano, C.14; Sonnabend, R.2,3; Song, J. W.34; Sun, Q.34; Sun, Z. T.28,29; Tacconi, M.20,43; Tang, X. W.28; Tang, Z. C.28; Tian, J.4,15; Ting, Samuel C. C.14,8; Ting, S. M.14; Tomassetti, N.4,15; Torsti, J.54; Tuysuz, C.36; Urban, T.14,18; Usoskin, I49,50; Vagelli, V.4,55; Vainio, R.54; Valente, E.9,19; Valtonen, E.54; Vazquez Acosta, M.41,42; Vecchi, M.10; Velasco, M.1; Vialle, J. P.31; Wallmann, C.22; Wang, L. Q.34; Wang, N. H.34; Wang, Q. L.35; Wang, S.16; Wang, X.14; Wang, Z. X.45; Wei, J.21; Weng, Z. L.14; Wu, H.40; Xiong, R. Q.40; Xu, W.30,34; Yan, Q.14; Yang, Y.56; Yi, H.40; Yu, Y. J.35; Yu, Z. Q.28; Zannoni, M.20,43; Zhang, C.28; Zhang, F.28,29; Zhang, F. Z.28,29; Zhang, J. H.40; Zhang, Z.14; Zhao, F.28,29; Zheng, Z. M.53; Zhuang, H. L.28; Zhukov, V2,3; Zichichi, A.32,33; Zimmermann, N.2,3; Zuccon, P.12,13
Organizations: 1Ctr Invest Energet Medioambientales & Tecnol CIEM, Madrid 28040, Spain.
2Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
3Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, JARA FAME, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
4INFN, Sez Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
5Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal.
6Julich Supercomp Ctr, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
7JARA FAME, Res Ctr Julich, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
8CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
9INFN, Sez Roma 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
10Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
11Nikhef, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands.
12INFN, TIFPA, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
13Univ Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
14MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
15Univ Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
16Univ Hawaii, Phys & Astron Dept, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
17Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, Inst Expt Teilchenphys, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
18NASA, Johnson Space Ctr JSC, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
19Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
20INFN, Sez Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
21Univ Geneva, DPNC, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
22Christian Alberts Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Angew Phys, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.
23CNR IROE, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
24INFN, Sez Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.
25Acad Sinica, Inst Phys, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
26Natl Cent Univ NCU, Phys Dept, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
27Natl Cent Univ NCU, Ctr High Energy & High Field Phys, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
28Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys IHEP, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
29Univ Chinese Acad Sci UCAS, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
30Shandong Inst Adv Technol SDIAT, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
31Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, LAPP IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.
32INFN, Sez Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
33Univ Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
34Shandong Univ SDU, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
35Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Elect Engn IEE, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
36Middle East Tech Univ METU, Dept Phys, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
37Univ Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble INP, CNRS, LPSC IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
38INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
39ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
40Southeast Univ SEU, Nanjing 210096, Peoples R China.
41Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Spain.
42Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Tenerife, Spain.
43Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
44Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Ciudad De Mexico 01000, Mexico.
45Sun Yat Sen Univ SYSU, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China.
46Natl Chung Shan Inst Sci & Technol NCSIST, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan.
47Kyungpook Natl Univ, CHEP, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
48Acad Sinica Grid Ctr ASGC, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
49Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Oulu 90014, Finland.
50Univ Oulu, Space Phys & Astromony Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland.
51Univ Maryland, East West Ctr Space Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
52Univ Maryland, IPST, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
53Beihang Univ BUAA, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
54Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Space Res Lab, Turku 20014, Finland.
55Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
56Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.
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Language: English
Published: American Physical Society, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-06-15


We report the observation of new properties of primary cosmic rays, neon (Ne), magnesium (Mg), and silicon (Si), measured in the rigidity range 2.15 GV to 3.0 TV with 1.8×106  Ne, 2.2×106  Mg, and 1.6×106  Si nuclei collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station. The Ne and Mg spectra have identical rigidity dependence above 3.65 GV. The three spectra have identical rigidity dependence above 86.5 GV, deviate from a single power law above 200 GV, and harden in an identical way. Unexpectedly, above 86.5 GV the rigidity dependence of primary cosmic rays Ne, Mg, and Si spectra is different from the rigidity dependence of primary cosmic rays He, C, and O. This shows that the Ne, Mg, and Si and He, C, and O are two different classes of primary cosmic rays.

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Series: Physical review letters
ISSN: 0031-9007
ISSN-E: 1079-7114
ISSN-L: 0031-9007
Volume: 124
Issue: 21
Article number: 211102
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.211102
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: We are grateful for the support of Jim Siegrist and his staff of the DOE including resources from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We also acknowledge the continuous support from MIT and its School of Science, Michael Sipser and Boleslaw Wyslouch. Research supported by CAS, NSFC, MOST, the provincial governments of Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangdong, and the China Scholarship Council, China; the Academy of Finland, Project No. 321882, Finland; CNRS/IN2P3 and CNES, France; Pascale Ehrenfreund, DLR under Grants No. 50OO1403 and No. 50OO1805 and JARA-HPC under Project No. JARA0052, Germany; INFN and ASI under ASI-INFN Agreements No. 2019-19-HH.0 and No. 2014-037-R.0, and ASI-University of Perugia Agreement No. 2019-2-HH.0, Italy; CHEP and NRF under Grant No. NRF-2018R1A6A1A06024970 at Kyungpook National University, Korea; the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and UNAM, Mexico; NWO under Grant. No. 680-1-004, Netherlands; FCT under Grant No. CERN/FIS-PAR/0013/2019, Portugal; CIEMAT, IAC, CDTI, and SEIDI-MINECO under Grants No. ESP2017-87055-C2-1-P, No. SEV-2015-0548, No. MDM-2015-0509, and No. RyC-2013-14660, Spain; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), federal and cantonal authorities, and the Fondation Dr. Manfred Steuer, Switzerland; Academia Sinica and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under Grants No. 103-2112-M-006-018-MY3, No. 105-2112-M-001-003, and No. CDA-105-M06, former Presidents of Academia Sinica Yuan-Tseh Lee and Chi-Huey Wong and former Ministers of MOST Maw-Kuen Wu and Luo-Chuan Lee, Taiwan; the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority under Grants No. 2017TAEK(CERN)A5.H6.F2-15, Turkey; and NSF Grants No. 14255202 and No. 1551980, Wyle Laboratories Grant No. 2014/T72497, and NASA NESSF Grant No. HELIO15F-0005, U.S.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.