University of Oulu

A. U. Abeysekara et al 2020 ApJ 890 97. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab6612

The Great Markarian 421 flare of 2010 February : multiwavelength variability and correlation studies

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Author: Abeysekara, A. U.1; Benbow, W.2; Bird, R.3;
Brill, A.4; Brose, R.5,6; Buchovecky, M.3; Buckley, J. H.7; Christiansen, J. L.8; Chromey, A. J.9; Daniel, M. K.2; Dumm, J.10; Falcone, A.11; Feng, Q.4; Finley, J. P.12; Fortson, L.10; Furniss, A.13; Galante, N.2; Gent, A.14,15; Gillanders, G. H.16; Giuri, C.6; Gueta, O.6; Hassan, T.6; Hervet, O.17,18; Holder, J.19,20; Hughes, G.2; Humensky, T. B.4; Johnson, C. A.17,18; Kaaret, P.21; Kar, P.1; Kelley-Hoskins, N.6; Kertzman, M.22; Kieda, D.1; Krause, M.6; Krennrich, F.9; Kumar, S.23; Lang, M. J.16; Moriarty, P.16; Mukherjee, R.24; Nelson, T.10; Nieto, D.4; Nievas-Rosillo, M.6; O'Brien, S.25; Ong, R. A.3; Otte, A. N.14,15; Park, N.26,27; Petrashyk, A.4; Pichel, A.28; Pohl, M.5,6; Prado, R. R.6; Pueschel, E.6; Quinn, J.25; Ragan, K.23; Reynolds, P. T.29; Richards, G. T.19,20; Roache, E.2; Rovero, A. C.28; Rulten, C.10; Sadeh, I6; Santander, M.30; Sembroski, G. H.12; Shahinyan, K.10; Stevenson, B.3; Sushch, I5; Tyler, J.23; Vassiliev, V. V.3; Wakely, S. P.31; Weinstein, A.9; Wells, R. M.9; Wilcox, P.21; Wilhelm, A.5,6; Williams, D. A.17,18; Zitzer, B.23; Acciari, V. A.32,33; Ansoldi, S.34,35,36,37,38,39; Antonelli, L. A.40; Engels, A. Arbet41; Baack, D.42; Babic, A.43,44,45,46,47; Banerjee, B.48; Barres de Almeida, U.49; Barrio, J. A.50; Becerra Gonzalez, J.32,33; Bednarek, W.51; Bellizzi, L.52,53; Bernardini, E.6,54,55,56; Berti, A.57,58; Besenrieder, J.59; Bhattacharyya, W.6; Bigongiari, C.40; Biland, A.41; Blanch, O.60; Bonnoli, G.52,53; Busetto, G.54,55; Carosi, R.61,62; Ceribella, G.59; Chai, Y.59; Cikota, S.43,44,45,46,47; Colak, S. M.60; Colin, U.59; Colombo, E.32,33; Contreras, J. L.50; Cortina, J.60; Covino, S.40; D'Elia, V40; Vela, P.61,62; Dazzi, F.40; De Angelis, A.54,55; De Lotto, B.34,35; Delfino, M.60,63; Delgado, J.60,63; Di Pierro, F.57; Souto Espinera, E.60; Prester, D. Dominis43,44,45,46,47; Dorner, D.64; Doro, M.54,55; Einecke, S.42; Elsaesser, D.42; Ramazani, V. Fallah65,66,67; Fattorini, A.42; Fernandez-Barral, A.54,55; Ferrara, G.40; Fidalgo, D.50; Foffano, L.54,55; Fonseca, M., V50; Font, L.68,69; Fruck, C.59; Galindo, D.70; Gallozzi, S.40; Garcia Lopez, R. J.32,33; Garczarczyk, M.6; Gasparyan, S.71; Gaug, M.68,69; Godinovic, N.43,44,45,46,47; Green, D.59; Guberman, D.60; Hadasch, D.36,37,38,39; Hahn, A.59; Herrera, J.32,33; Hoang, J.50; Hrupec, D.43,44,45,46,47; Inoue, S.36,37,38,39; Ishio, K.59; Iwamura, Y.36,37,38,39; Kubo, H.36,37,38,39; Kushida, J.36,37,38,39; Lamastra, A.40; Lelas, D.43,44,45,46,47; Leone, F.40; Lindfors, E.65,66,67; Lombardi, S.40; Longo, F.34,35,58; Lopez, M.50; Lopez-Coto, R.54,55; Lopez-Oramas, A.32,33; Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B.49; Maggio, C.68,69; Majumdar, P.48; Makariev, M.72; Mallamaci, M.54,55; Maneva, G.72; Manganaro, M.43,44,45,46,47; Mannheim, K.64; Maraschi, L.40; Mariotti, M.54,55; Martinez, M.60; Masuda, S.36,37,38,39; Mazin, D.36,37,38,39,59; Miceli, D.34,35; Minev, M.72; Miranda, J. M.52,53; Mirzoyan, R.59; Molina, E.70; Moralejo, A.60; Morcuende, D.50; Moreno, V68,69; Moretti, E.60; Munar-Adrover, P.68,69; Neustroev, V65,66,67; Niedzwiecki, A.51; Nievas Rosillo, M.50; Nigro, C.6; Nilsson, K.65,66,67; Ninci, D.60; Nishijima, K.36,37,38,39; Noda, K.36,37,38,39; Nogues, L.60; Noethe, M.42; Paiano, S.54,55; Palacio, J.60; Palatiello, M.34,35; Paneque, D.59; Paoletti, R.52,53; Paredes, J. M.70; Penil, P.50; Peresano, M.34,35; Persic, M.34,35,73,74; Moroni, P. G. Prada61,62; Prandini, E.54,55; Puljak, I43,44,45,46,47; Rhode, W.42; Ribo, M.70; Rico, J.60; Righi, C.40; Rugliancich, A.61,62; Saha, L.50; Sahakyan, N.71; Saito, T.36,37,38,39; Satalecka, K.6; Schweizer, T.59; Sitarek, J.51; Snidaric, I43,44,45,46,47; Sobczynska, D.51; Somero, A.32,33; Stamerra, A.40; Strom, D.59; Strzys, M.59; Sun, S.75,76; Suric, T.43,44,45,46,47; Tavecchio, F.40; Temnikov, P.72; Terzic, T.43,44,45,46,47; Teshima, M.36,37,38,39,59; Torres-Alba, N.70; Tsujimoto, S.36,37,38,39; van Scherpenberg, J.59; Vanzo, G.32,33; Vazquez Acosta, M.32,33; Vovk, I59; Will, M.59; Zaric, D.43,44,45,46,47; Aller, H. D.77; Aller, M. F.77; Carini, M. T.78; Horan, D.79; Jordan, B.80; Jorstad, S. G.81,82; Kurtanidze, O. M.83,84,85; Kurtanidze, S. O.83; Lahteenmaki, A.86,87; Larionov, V. M.82,88; Larionova, E. G.82; Madejski, G.89,90; Marscher, A. P.81; Max-Moerbeck, W.91; Moody, J. Ward92; Morozova, D. A.82; Nikolashvili, M. G.83; Raiteri, C. M.93; Readhead, A. C. S.94; Richards, J. L.12; Sadun, A. C.95; Sakamoto, T.96; Sigua, L. A.83; Smith, P. S.97; Talvikki, H.98; Tammi, J.86; Tornikoski, M.86; Troitsky, I. S.82; Villata, M.93
Organizations: 1Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA.
2Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Ctr Astrophys Harvard & Smithsonian, Amado, AZ 85645 USA.
3Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
4Columbia Univ, Phys Dept, New York, NY 10027 USA.
5Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
6DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
7Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
8Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Phys Dept, San Luis Obispo, CA 94307 USA.
9Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
10Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.
11Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Davey Lab 525, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
12Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
13Calif State Univ East Bay, Dept Phys, Hayward, CA 94542 USA.
14Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
15Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
16Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
17Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
18Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
19Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
20Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
21Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA.
22DePauw Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Greencastle, IN 46135 USA.
23McGill Univ, Phys Dept, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada.
24Columbia Univ, Barnard Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA.
25Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland.
26Univ Wisconsin, WIPAC, Madison, WI USA.
27Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
28CONICET UBA, IAFE, CC 67 Suc 28,C1428ZAA, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
29Cork Inst Technol, Dept Phys Sci, Cork, Ireland.
30Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
31Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
32Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
33Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain.
34Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
35INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
36Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
37Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
38Tokai Univ, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.
39RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan.
40Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
41Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
42Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
43Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
44Univ Split FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
45Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
46Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.
47Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
48HBNI, Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar,Sect 1, Kolkata 700064, India.
49URCA, CBPF, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
50Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
51Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
52Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
53INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
54Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
55INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
56Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
57Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-00044 Rome, Italy.
58Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
59Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
60Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
61Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
62INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
63PIC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
64Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
65Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Dept Phys & Astron, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
66Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
67Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
68Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
69Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
70Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICCUB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
71ICRANet Armenia NAS RA, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.
72Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
73Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, Bologna, Italy.
74Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy.
75Fudan Univ, Ctr Field Theory & Particle Phys, 2005 Songhu Rd, Shanghai 200438, Peoples R China.
76Fudan Univ, Dept Phys, 2005 Songhu Rd, Shanghai 200438, Peoples R China.
77Univ Michigan, Dept Astron, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
78Western Kentucky Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 1906 Coll Hts Blvd 11077, Bowling Green, KY 42101 USA.
79Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
80Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Sch Cosm Phys, Dublin, Ireland.
81Boston Univ, Inst Astrophys Res, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
82St Petersburg State Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Skij Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia.
83Abastumani Observ, GE-0301 Mt Kanobili, Abastumani, Georgia.
84Kazan Fed Univ, Engelhardt Astron Observ, Tatarstan, Russia.
85Guangzhou Univ, Ctr Astrophys, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
86Aalto Univ, Metsahovi Radio Observ, Metsahovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylmala, Finland.
87Aalto Univ, Dept Elect & Nanoengn, POB 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland.
88Pulkovo Observ, St Petersburg, Russia.
89Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
90Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
91Univ Chile, Dept Astron, Camino El Observ 1515, Santiago, Chile.
92Brigham Young Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Provo, UT 84602 USA.
93Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, INAF, I-10025 Pino Torinese, To, Italy.
94CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
95Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Denver, CO 80217 USA.
96Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Coll Sci & Engn, Dept Phys & Math, Chuo Ku, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525258, Japan.
97Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.
98Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2020061845052
Language: English
Published: IOP Publishing, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-06-18
Description:

Abstract

We report on variability and correlation studies using multiwavelength observations of the blazar Mrk 421 during the month of 2010 February, when an extraordinary flare reaching a level of ~27 Crab Units above 1 TeV was measured in very high energy (VHE) γ-rays with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) observatory. This is the highest flux state for Mrk 421 ever observed in VHE γ-rays. Data are analyzed from a coordinated campaign across multiple instruments, including VHE γ-ray (VERITAS, Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov), high-energy γ-ray (Fermi-LAT), X-ray (Swift, Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment, MAXI), optical (including the GASP-WEBT collaboration and polarization data), and radio (Metsähovi, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory). Light curves are produced spanning multiple days before and after the peak of the VHE flare, including over several flare “decline“ epochs. The main flare statistics allow 2 minute time bins to be constructed in both the VHE and optical bands enabling a cross-correlation analysis that shows evidence for an optical lag of ~25–55 minutes, the first time-lagged correlation between these bands reported on such short timescales. Limits on the Doppler factor (δ ≳ 33) and the size of the emission region (δ⁻¹ RB ≲ × 10¹³ cm) are obtained from the fast variability observed by VERITAS during the main flare. Analysis of 10 minute binned VHE and X-ray data over the decline epochs shows an extraordinary range of behavior in the flux–flux relationship, from linear to quadratic to lack of correlation to anticorrelation. Taken together, these detailed observations of an unprecedented flare seen in Mrk 421 are difficult to explain with the classic single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model.

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Series: Astrophysical journal
ISSN: 0004-637X
ISSN-E: 1538-4357
ISSN-L: 0004-637X
Volume: 890
Issue: 2
DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab6612
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab6612
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Subjects:
Funding: This research is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and NSERC in Canada. This research used resources provided by the Open Science Grid, which is supported by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2015-69818-P, FPA2012-36668, FPA2015-68378-P, FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-6-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2015-71662-C2-2-P, FPA201790566REDC), the Indian Department of Atomic Energy, the Japanese JSPS and MEXT, and the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-153/28.08.2018 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548 and Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" MDM-2014-0369, the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782, the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02, the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382, and the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ.
Dataset Reference: This publication makes use of data obtained at Metsähovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University, Finland, and the OVRO 40 m monitoring program, which is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. The UMRAO data were obtained through NSF grant AST 0607523 and NASA Fermi GI award NNX09AU16G. The St. Petersburg University team acknowledges support from Russian RFBR foundation, grant 12-02-00452. The Abastumani Observatory team acknowledges financial support by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation through project FR/577/6-320/13. The Steward Observatory data were obtained under Fermi Guest Investigator Program grant NNX09AU10G. The research at Boston University is supported by NASA grant 80NSSC17K0649 and NSF grant AST-1615796.
Copyright information: © 2020. The American Astronomical Society.