University of Oulu

Anne Tolvanen, Katja Kangas, Oili Tarvainen, Esa Huhta, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Marketta Kyttä, Ari Nikula, Vesa Nivala, Seija Tuulentie, Liisa Tyrväinen, The relationship between people's activities and values with the protection level and biodiversity, Tourism Management, Volume 81, 2020, 104141, ISSN 0261-5177,

The relationship between people’s activities and values with the protection level and biodiversity

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Author: Tolvanen, Anne1; Kangas, Katja1; Tarvainen, Oili1;
Organizations: 1Natural Resources Institute Finland, P.O. Box 413, FI-90014, University of Oulu, Finland
2Natural Resources Institute Finland, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96200, Rovaniemi, Finland
3Raudaskylä Christian College, Opistontie 4-6, FI-84880, Ylivieska, Finland
4Aalto University, PL 14100, FI-00076, Aalto, Finland
5Natural Resources Institute Finland, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-06-30


We investigated how people’s recreational activities, values, and land use preferences are related to the protection level, biodiversity and cultural heritage values of nature-based tourism areas in northern Finland. We assessed peoples’ opinions using a public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) and analyzed the data together with spatial biodiversity and cultural heritage data from the same area. Associations between the PPGIS place markings with the protection level and biodiversity values were quite low, and for the cultural heritage sites they were altogether missing. Negative preferences were often marked in areas with high numbers of sites rated as pleasant and they overlapped with each other, indicating conflicting preferences. Since most activities are not noticeably related to the protection level or biodiversity values of a site they can be planned so as to protect the biodiversity of the area.

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Series: Tourism management
ISSN: 0261-5177
ISSN-E: 1879-3193
ISSN-L: 0261-5177
Volume: 81
Article number: 104141
DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104141
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Funding: This work was financially supported by the Natural Resources Institute Finland, Aalto University and Metsähallitus, the European Regional Development Fund project “Socioecological tools for the planning of tourist destinations in Kainuu - VAAKA,” and project 283153 funded by the Academy of Finland.
Copyright information: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.