University of Oulu

Zhang, K., Ketterle, L., Järvinen, T., Lorite, G. S., Hong, S., & Liimatainen, H. (2020). Self-assembly of graphene oxide and cellulose nanocrystals into continuous filament via interfacial nanoparticle complexation. Materials & Design, 193, 108791.

Self-assembly of graphene oxide and cellulose nanocrystals into continuous filament via interfacial nanoparticle complexation

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Author: Zhang, Kaitao1; Ketterle, Lukas2; Järvinen, Topias3;
Organizations: 1Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, Finland
2Institute for Mechanical Process Engineering and Mechanics, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
3Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, Finland
4College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-07-06


The present work demonstrates the spinning of conductive filaments from oppositely charged nano-scale entities, i.e., cationic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and anionic graphene oxide (GO), via interfacial nanoparticle complexation. Especially, the role of CNC and GO concentration in filament formation was investigated. Moreover, the chemical structure, morphology and composition of formed CNC/GO composite filaments were further characterized. The positively charged CNC formed firstly a complex film with negatively charged GO flake and then the complexed structures were further assembled into macroscale hybrid filament (diameter about 20 to 50 μm). After chemical reduction of the hybrid filament, conductive filaments with an average tensile strength of 109 ± 8 MPa and electrical conductivity of 3298 ± 167 S/m were obtained. The presented approach provides a new pathway to understand the interaction of GO and nanocellulose, and to design macroscopic, assembled and functionalized architectures of GO and nanocellulose composites.

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Series: Materials & design
ISSN: 0264-1275
ISSN-E: 1873-4197
ISSN-L: 0264-1275
Volume: 193
Article number: 108791
DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2020.108791
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: The authors acknowledge the support from the Academy of Finland project “Bionanochemicals” (298295) and European Regional Development Fund/Council of Oulu region (“Novidam” project).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 298295
Detailed Information: 298295 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: Supplementary material:
Copyright information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (