University of Oulu

W. Chen, C. Zhu, N. Ren, T. Seppänen and A. Keskinarkaus, "Screen-Cam Robust and Blind Watermarking for Tile Satellite Images," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 125274-125294, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3007689

Screen-cam robust and blind watermarking for tile satellite images

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Author: Chen, Weitong1,2,3; Zhu, Changqing1,2,3; Ren, Na1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
2State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing 210023, China
3Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
4Center for Machine Vision and Signal Analysis, Physiological Signal Analysis Team, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 12.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-08-17


To achieve watermark synchronization from an image with perspective distortion is a challenge. This paper proposes a screen-cam robust and blind watermarking scheme for tile satellite images, which means we do not need any user interaction or additional information in watermark detection. To achieve this, at the watermark embedding side, we divide tiles into synchronization tiles and message tiles, and propose a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based embedding method to cope with the quality degradation caused by screen-cam process. At the extraction side, based on the idea of template matching, we first use a synchronization response index to estimate an appropriate scale level and positions of embedded synchronization watermarks from the noise component, which is estimated by Wiener filter. Then, we propose verification, selection, and precise locations methods to ensure the effectiveness and accuracy of synchronization detection results. After that, we can extract the regions of message tiles. Finally, we extract watermark message based on the local max value from the DFT domain of the noise component. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme against common attacks and screen-cam attack with a tripod as well as handhold shooting.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 8
Pages: 125274 - 125294
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3007689
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 41971338, and in part by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under Grant BK20191373.
Copyright information: © The Authors 2020. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see