University of Oulu

Ismail, M.Y., Patanen, M., Kauppinen, S. et al. Surface analysis of tissue paper using laser scanning confocal microscopy and micro-computed topography. Cellulose 27, 8989–9003 (2020).

Surface analysis of tissue paper using laser scanning confocal microscopy and micro-computed topography

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Author: Ismail, Mostafa Y.1; Patanen, Minna2; Kauppinen, Sami3;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, Oulu, 90014, Finland
2Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, Oulu, 90014, Finland
3Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics, and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4UPM-Kymmene Corporation, R&D Department, UPM Research Center, Lappeenranta, 53200, Finland
5Division of Solid Mechanics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, Sweden
6Lund Institute of Advanced Neutron and X-ray Science, Lund, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-08-28


Tissue paper softness relies on two major factors, the bulk softness, which can be indicated by the elasticity of the sheet, and surface softness. Measurement of surface softness is complicated and often requires a multi-step process. A key parameter defining surface softness is the topography of the surface, particularly the crepe structure and its periodicity. Herein, we present a novel approach to measure and quantify the tissue paper surface crepe structure and periodicity based on the detection of waviness along the sample using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSM) and X-ray tomography (XRT). In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to characterize the tissue paper surface. We demonstrate that surface topography is directly correlated to the erosion of the doctor blade, which is used to remove the dry tissue paper from the Yankee cylinder. Because of its accuracy and simplicity, the laser confocal microscopy method has the potential to be used directly on the production line to monitor the production process of the tissue paper. XRT revealed more structural details of the tissue paper structure in 3D, and it allowed for the reconstruction of the surface and the internal structure of the tissue paper.

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Series: Cellulose
ISSN: 0969-0239
ISSN-E: 1572-882X
ISSN-L: 0969-0239
Volume: 27
Pages: 8989 - 9003
DOI: 10.1007/s10570-020-03399-w
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the I4Future doctoral program, which is part of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 713606.
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit