University of Oulu

Suominen, T.H., Edgren, J., Salpakoski, A. et al. Physical function and lean body mass as predictors of bone loss after hip fracture: a prospective follow-up study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 21, 367 (2020).

Physical function and lean body mass as predictors of bone loss after hip fracture : a prospective follow-up study

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Author: Suominen, Tuuli H.1; Edgren, Johanna1; Salpakoski, Anu2;
Organizations: 1Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, PO Box 35, 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland
2Rehabilitation Center Peurunka, Laukaa, Finland
3Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Central Finland Health Care District, Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland
4Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Satakunta University of Applied Sciences, Pori, Finland
6Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-09-04


Background: Predictors of bone deterioration after hip fracture have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical function and lean body mass (LBM) with loss of bone density and strength in older people recovering from a hip fracture.

Methods: A total of 81 over 60-year-old, community-dwelling men and women operated for a hip fracture participated in this 1-year prospective follow-up study. Distal tibia total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMDTOT, mg/cm³) and compressive strength index (BSI, g²/cm⁴) and mid-tibia cortical vBMD (vBMDCO, mg/cm³) and bending strength index (SSI, mm³) were assessed in both legs by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at baseline (on average 10 weeks after fracture) and at 12 months. At baseline, LBM was measured with a bioimpedance device and physical function with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and perceived difficulty in walking outdoors. Robust multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of physical function and LBM with the change in bone parameters at 12-months.

Results: The mean change in distal tibia vBMDTOT and BSI in both legs ranged from − 0.9 to − 2.5%. The change in mid-tibia vBMDCO and SSI ranged from − 0.5 to − 2.1%. A lower SPPB score, difficulty in walking outdoors and lower LBM predicted greater decline in distal tibia vBMDTOT in both legs. A lower SPPB score and difficulty in walking outdoors were also associated with a greater decline in distal tibia BSI in both legs. At the midshaft site, a lower SPPB score and lower LBM were associated with greater decline in SSI on the fractured side.

Conclusions: Older hip fracture patients with low physical function and lower LBM may be at risk for greater decline in tibia bone properties during the first post-fracture year. Acknowledgement of the risk factors could assist in developing interventions and care to promote bone health and overall recovery.

Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN53680197. The trial was registered retrospectively but before the recruitment was completed. Registered March 3, 2010.

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Series: BMC musculoskeletal disorders
ISSN: 1471-2474
ISSN-E: 1471-2474
ISSN-L: 1471-2474
Volume: 21
Article number: 367
DOI: 10.1186/s12891-020-03401-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: The study was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education and Culture (SS, Grants Dnro 43/627/2007, 63/627/2008, 79/627/2009) and Kela (the Social Insurance Institution of Finland) (SS, Grant Dnro 24/26/2007). TT was funded by the Academy of Finland (grant no. 286536) and TR was an Academy Research Fellow during the preparation of this manuscript (Academy of Finland grant numbers 321336 and 328818). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, analyses, or interpretation, or in writing the manuscript.
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