University of Oulu

Wartiainen, A., Harju, M., Tamminen, S., Määttä, L., Alatarvas, T., Röning, J. (2020) A tool for finding inclusion clusters in steel SEM specimens. Open Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 642–648, eISSN 2391-5439, DOI:

A tool for finding inclusion clusters in steel SEM specimens

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Author: Wartiainen, Anna-Mari1; Harju, Markus1; Tamminen, Satu1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Finland
2SSAB Europe, Raahe, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: De Gruyter, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-09-11


Non-metallic inclusions, especially large or clustered inclusions, in steel are usually harmful. Thus, the microscopic analysis of test specimens is an important part of the quality control. This steel purity analysis produces a large amount of individual inclusion information for each test specimen. The interpretation of the results is laborious and the comparison of larger product groups practically impossible. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy-to-use tool for automatic interpretation of the SEM analysis to differentiate clustered and large inclusions information from the manifold individual inclusion information. Because of the large variety of the potential users, the tool needs to be applicable for any steel grade and application, both for liquid and final product specimen, to analyse automatically steel specimen inclusions, especially inclusion clusters, based on the INCA Feature program produced data from SEM/EDS. The developed tool can be used to improve the controlling of the steel purity or for automatic production of new inclusion cluster features that can be utilised further in quality prediction models, for example.

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Series: Open engineering
ISSN: 2391-5439
ISSN-E: 2391-5439
ISSN-L: 2391-5439
Volume: 10
Issue: 1
Pages: 642 - 648
DOI: 10.1515/eng-2020-0068
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: The authors thank SSAB Europe, Raahe for providing the data and their expertise for the tool. Further acknowledgements are given to Business Finland and Dimecc Oy and Centre for Advanced Steels Research (CASR) for supporting this research.
Copyright information: © 2020 A.-M. Wartiainen et al., published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.