University of Oulu

Sliz, R., Huttunen, O., Jansson, E. et al. Reliability of R2R-printed, flexible electrodes for e-clothing applications. npj Flex Electron 4, 12 (2020).

Reliability of R2R-printed, flexible electrodes for e-clothing applications

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Author: Sliz, Rafal1; Huttunen, Olli-Heikki2; Jansson, Elina2;
Organizations: 1OPEM Unit, University of Oulu, Erkki Koiso-Kanttilankatu 3, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Kaitoväylä 1, 90570 Oulu, Finland
3Polar Electro Oy, Professorintie 5, 90440 Kempele, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 14.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-09-16


Conformable electrodes are essential for the development of flexible electronics or functional clothing, regardless of their application. Their reliable ability to transfer electric signals or serve as sensing elements in various conditions is vital for the advancement of wearables that will enhance our everyday life. In this research, we concentrate our efforts on the understanding of the influence of elongation and washing on roll-to-roll printed conductive electrodes of various shapes and materials. A large sample set provides data on the breaking mechanisms and how these affect the electrical properties of the electrodes. In addition, the physicochemical analysis offers insights into the electrodes’ and materials’ behavior in extreme conditions during elongation and washing cycles. The achieved results indicate auspicious nanoparticle shapes and sizes as well as evidence regarding micro-scale breaking mechanisms responsible for electrodes degradation. Utilization of commercially available materials and roll-to-roll printing techniques allow the seamless application of achieved results and the creation of more reliable, flexible electronic devices.

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Series: npj flexible electronics
ISSN: 2397-4621
ISSN-E: 2397-4621
ISSN-L: 2397-4621
Volume: 4
Issue: 1
Article number: 12
DOI: 10.1038/s41528-020-0076-y
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
216 Materials engineering
213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was supported by the postdoctoral research fellow grant of the Academy of Finland (grant no. 296890). The authors also express their gratitude for the financial support received from the Academy of Finland’s FIRI funding (grant no. 320017 and 320020) and Tekes Grant (Hilla) no. 3896/31/2014. Pekka Ontero and Mikko Hietala are acknowledged for roll-to-roll printing machine operation. Finally, the authors acknowledge Jakub Czajkowski for his invaluable contribution to this project in terms of layout and measurement system development.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 296890
Detailed Information: 296890 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
320017 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
320020 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit