University of Oulu

K. Turbic, M. Särestöniemi, M. Hämäläinen and L. M. Correia, "User Influence on Polarization Characteristics in Off-Body Channels," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 167570-167584, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3023248

User influence on polarization characteristics in off-body channels

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Author: Turbic, Kenan1; Särestöniemi, Mariella2; Hämäläinen, Matti2;
Organizations: 1INESC-ID / IST, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
2Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-09-16


This paper investigates the impact of the user’s body on wearable antenna radiation characteristics and the consequent effects on the off-body channel, with the focus on the polarization aspect. The impact on antenna gain and polarization is analyzed for different antenna placements and separations from the body, based on electromagnetic simulations with numerical phantoms at 3, 4 and 5 GHz. Results show a strong influence of the body on the antenna efficiency, gain, and polarization. The excess losses due to body-shadowing suppress the antenna radiation behind the body by more than 20 dB, while its polarization changes from vertical in free space, to an elliptical one when placed on the body. The obtained radiation characteristics are then employed for off-body channel simulations using a geometrybased polarized channel model, which employs an analytic mobility model for wearable antennas based on Fourier series. The antenna rotation due to changes in user’s posture is seen as one of the main sources of offbody channel degradation. The polarization mismatch losses imposed by antennas’ physical misalignment, are observed to yield periodic fades of the Line-of-Sight component, with more than 30 dB drops in the received power level.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 8
Pages: 167570 - 167584
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3023248
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The research at IST was performed within the framework of the COST Action CA15104, IRACON. The research at CWC has been financially supported partly by the project WBAN Communications in the Congested Environments (MeCCE), by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship (grant 318927) and by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 872752.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2020. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see