University of Oulu

Hammam, A., Li, Y., Nie, H. et al. Isothermal and Non-Isothermal Reduction Behaviors of Iron Ore Compacts in Pure Hydrogen Atmosphere and Kinetic Analysis. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 38, 81–93 (2021).

Isothermal and non-isothermal reduction behaviors of iron ore compacts in pure hydrogen atmosphere and kinetic analysis

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Author: Hammam, Abourehab1,2; Li, Ying1; Nie, Hao1;
Organizations: 1State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
2Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, -Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
3Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2020-10-05


This study examines the isothermal and non-isothermal reduction behaviors of iron ore compacts in a pure hydrogen atmosphere and compares the results obtained during the reduction process by CO. The different phases accompanying the reduction reactions were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its morphology was microscopically examined. In isothermal experiments, temperature plays a significant role in the reduction process. At any given temperature, the reduction rate during the initial stages is higher than that during the final stages. The reduction rate in H₂ atmosphere was faster than in CO gas. The comparison of activation energy values suggested that reduction with H₂ is more efficient than with CO. At the same temperature, the time required to achieve a certain degree of reduction was lower when using H₂ gas than CO atmosphere. In non-isothermal tests, the heating rate has a significant effect on the reduction rate and reduction extent. At the same heating rate, the degree of reduction was higher in H₂ atmosphere than in CO gas. Based on experimental data, the parameters of reaction kinetics were deduced by application of model-free and model-fitting methods. The reduction in H₂ atmosphere was controlled by nucleation model (Avrami-Erofeev model), while the CO reduction reaction was controlled by gas diffusion.

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Series: Mining, metallurgy & exploration
ISSN: 2524-3462
ISSN-E: 2524-3470
ISSN-L: 2524-3462
Volume: 38
Pages: 81 - 93
DOI: 10.1007/s42461-020-00317-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. Thus study was financially supported by The Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning (No. TP2015039), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51974182), National 111 project, Grant/Award No. 17002, and CSC support for Ph.D. from the Belt and Road Countries.
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