University of Oulu

Ismail Gölgeci, Ahmad Arslan, Zaheer Khan, Minnie Kontkanen, Foreign firm operations and skills development of local employees in violence-hit countries, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 162, 2021, 120376, ISSN 0040-1625,

Foreign firm operations and skills development of local employees in violence-hit countries

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Author: Gölgeci, Ismail1; Arslan, Ahmad2; Khan, Zaheer3;
Organizations: 1Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Denmark
2Department of Marketing, Management & International Business, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Finland
3Business School, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
4School of Marketing and Communications, University of Vaasa, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-10-11


This paper addresses the skills development of local employees, following the operations of foreign firms in violence-hit and fragile countries. Despite being high-risk countries, such countries receive the attention of foreign firms, which in many cases offer services that are vital for daily life and improve local productivity. Within the overall conceptual focus of peace engineering, we analyze the operations and activities of six Turkish firms operating in the violence-hit and fragile countries of Congo, Ethiopia, Iraq, Morocco (the Western Sahara region), Somalia, and Sudan. The findings indicate that foreign firms operating in fragile and conflict-affected countries, along with achieving business goals, contribute significantly to the skills development of local employees and establish legitimacy through forging social connections and adopting corporate social responsibility activities. Their support for skills development resulted in career advancement opportunities and, in some cases, entrepreneurial ventures that were initiated by local employees. We argue that, despite precarious and unpredictable conditions, the operations of such firms can provide economic incentives as well as increased well-being and long-term stability in such contexts. Thus, the findings of this study have important implications for post-conflict recovery and local economic development through skills formation and entrepreneurial start-ups.

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Series: Technological forecasting and social change
ISSN: 0040-1625
ISSN-E: 1873-5509
ISSN-L: 0040-1625
Volume: 162
Article number: 120376
DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120376
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Copyright information: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license