University of Oulu

Nippolainen, E., Shaikh, R., Virtanen, V. et al. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Enables Differentiation of Mechanically and Enzymatically Induced Cartilage Injuries. Ann Biomed Eng 48, 2343–2353 (2020).

Near infrared spectroscopy enables differentiation of mechanically and enzymatically induced cartilage injuries

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Author: Nippolainen, Ervin1; Shaikh, Rubina1; Virtanen, Vesa2;
Organizations: 1Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland
2Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
4Diagnostic Imaging Center, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
5School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-10-30


This study evaluates the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to distinguish between different cartilage injury types associated with post-traumatic osteoarthritis and idiopathic osteoarthritis (OA) induced by mechanical and enzymatic damages. Bovine osteochondral samples (n = 72) were subjected to mechanical (n = 24) and enzymatic (n = 36) damage; NIR spectral measurements were acquired from each sample before and after damage, and from a separate control group (n = 12). Biomechanical measurements were then conducted to determine the functional integrity of the samples. NIR spectral variations resulting from different damage types were investigated and the samples classified using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was then employed to investigate the relationship between the NIR spectra and biomechanical properties of the samples. Results of the study demonstrate that substantial spectral changes occur in the region of 1700–2200 nm due to tissue damages, while differences between enzymatically and mechanically induced damages can be observed mainly in the region of 1780–1810 nm. We conclude that NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate analysis, is capable of discriminating between cartilage injuries that mimic idiopathic OA and traumatic injuries based on specific spectral features. This information could be useful in determining the optimal treatment strategy during cartilage repair in arthroscopy.

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Series: Annals of biomedical engineering
ISSN: 0090-6964
ISSN-E: 1573-9686
ISSN-L: 0090-6964
Volume: 48
Issue: 9
Pages: 2343 - 2353
DOI: 10.1007/s10439-020-02506-z
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Eastern Finland (UEF) including Kuopio University Hospital. This study was supported by MIRACLE project, Grant Agreement No 780598, Europe Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (H2020-ICT-2017-1), and Academy of Finland Projects: 315820 (Dr. Afara) and 310466 (Prof. Töyräs).
EU Grant Number: (780598) MIRACLE - Mid-infrared arthroscopy innovative imaging system for real-time clinical in depth examination and diagnosis of degenerative joint diseases
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 310466
Detailed Information: 310466 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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