University of Oulu

Pospisil, J.; Fujdiak, R.; Mikhaylov, K. Investigation of the Performance of TDoA-Based Localization Over LoRaWAN in Theory and Practice. Sensors 2020, 20, 5464

Investigation of the performance of TDoA-based localization over LoRaWAN in theory and practice

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Author: Pospisil, Jan1; Fujdiak, Radek1; Mikhaylov, Konstantin2
Organizations: 1Department of Telecommunications, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 12, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Erkki Koiso-Kanttilan katu 3, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-11-03


The paper deals with the localization in a low-power wide-area-network (LPWAN) operating long-range wide-area-network (LoRaWAN) technology. The LoRaWAN is, today, one of the most widely used connectivity-enabling technologies for the battery-powered smart devices employed in a broad range of applications. Many of these applications either require or can benefit from the availability of geolocation information. The use of global positioning system (GPS) technology is restrained by the bad propagation of the signal when the device is hidden indoors, and by energy consumption such a receiver would require. Therefore, this paper focuses on an alternative solution implying the use of the information readily available in the LoRaWAN network and application of the time difference of arrival (TDoA) method for the passive geolocation of end-devices in the network. First, the limits of geolocation services in networks that use narrow-band communication channels are discussed, as well as the relevant challenges faced by the TDoA approach. Then, we select five classic TDoA algorithms and evaluate their performance using simulation. Based on these results, we select the two providing the best accuracy (i.e., Chan’s and Foy’s). These algorithms were tested by the field measurements, using the specially designed low-cost gateways and test devices to estimate their real-life performance.

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Series: Sensors
ISSN: 1424-8220
ISSN-E: 1424-8220
ISSN-L: 1424-8220
Volume: 20
Issue: 19
Article number: 5464
DOI: 10.3390/s20195464
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The research was financed by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TACR) under grant no. TA18910001. The work of K. Mikhaylov was also supported by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship under Grant no. 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (