University of Oulu

Inal, Y., Clemmensen, T., Rajanen, D., Iivari, N., Rizvanoglu, K., Sivaji, A., Positive developments but challenges still ahead : a survey study on UX professionals’ work practices, Journal of usability studies, Vol. 15:4, ISSN: 1931-3357, p. 210-246

Positive developments but challenges still ahead : a survey study on UX professionals’ work practices

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Author: Inal, Yavuz1; Clemmensen, Torkil2; Rajanen, Dorina3;
Organizations: 1University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
2Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark
3University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Galatasaray University, Istanbul, Turkey
5MIMOS Technology Solutions, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: User Experience Professionals Association (UXPA) International, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-11-10


This paper describes and gives an overview of User Experience (UX) professionals’ work practices—their environment, practices, tools, and challenges. First, we reviewed 32 empirical studies about usability and UX work to identify key issues in usability and UX work practices. For the identified key issues, we collected data from 422 UX professionals surveyed in five different countries using a comprehensive questionnaire with 62 questions. Our results show that UX professionals individually know about usability and UX concepts, methods, and tools. They typically employ between one and five Human Computer Interaction (HCI) theories on average and use one to three different techniques and tools. On the organizational level, UX is involved from early to late stages and is generally well known within all levels of the organization. On the country and community level, UX professionals generally do not report themselves as belonging to a professional community, despite the fact that the survey was administered via channels of the respective communities in the survey countries. Overall, this survey shows that UX professionals have considerable work experience and strong UX expertise self-confidence. This may be considered as indicating a positive development of the UX profession.

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Series: Journal of usability studies
ISSN: 1931-3357
ISSN-E: 1931-3357
ISSN-L: 1931-3357
Volume: 15
Issue: 4
Pages: 210 - 246
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Copyright information: © 2019–2020, User Experience Professionals Association and the authors. Creative Commons Attribution license, referenced at