University of Oulu

Gyakwaa, F., Aula, M., Alatarvas, T., Vuolio, T., Shu, Q., Huttula, M., & Fabritius, T. (2020). Characterisation of Binary Phase Mixtures of Magnesium-Aluminate Spinel and Calcium-Aluminates Using Time-Gated Raman Spectroscopy. ISIJ International, 60(5), 988–997.

Characterisation of binary phase mixtures of magnesium-aluminate spinel and calcium-aluminates using time-gated Raman spectroscopy

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Author: Gyakwaa, Francis1; Aula, Matti1; Alatarvas, Tuomas1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu
2Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-11-13


The modification of MgO·Al₂O₃ spinel inclusions into less detrimental mixture phases of CaO–MgO–Al₂O₃ plays an essential role in refining calcium-treated aluminium killed steels. This study uses Raman spectroscopy for the characterisation of binary phase samples that contain MgO·Al₂O₃ spinel and calcium aluminate (CaO)x–(Al₂O₃)y phases. Samples were synthesised from MgO·Al2O3 spinel (MA), Al2O3 and calcium aluminate phases to achieve binary samples of CA–MA, C3A–MA, C12A7–MA and Al₂O₃–MA with varying phase fractions. The study also examined the possibility of a slight variation for non-stoichiometric spinel samples below the 1600°C region in an MgO–Al₂O₃ binary system. The relative intensities of the Raman band were used for the quantification of the phase fractions. For a quantitative prediction, linear regression calibration models were identified for each of the studied systems. This work demonstrates the use of Raman spectroscopy for the characterisation of calcium aluminate phases of CA, C3A, C12A7 and magnesium aluminate spinel phases along with Al₂O₃ and its potential application in inclusion characterisation.

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Series: ISIJ international
ISSN: 0915-1559
ISSN-E: 1347-5460
ISSN-L: 0915-1559
Volume: 60
Issue: 5
Pages: 988 - 997
DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2019-576
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: The authors wish to acknowledge the support of I4Future doctoral programme funded by European Union’s H2020 under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 713606 and Academy of Finland Profilation project (Academy of Finland, No. 311934).
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Copyright information: © 2020 ISIJ. ISIJ International is an Open Access journal published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (CC BY-NC–ND) license.