Luukkonen T, Yliniemi J, Kinnunen P, Illikainen M (2020) Sustainable batching water options for one-part alkali-activated slag mortar: Sea water and reverse osmosis reject water. PLoS ONE 15(11): e0242462. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242462
Sustainable batching water options for one-part alkali-activated slag mortar : sea water and reverse osmosis reject water
|Author:||Luukkonen, Tero1; Yliniemi, Juho1; Kinnunen, Päivö1;|
1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.3 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2020111992012
Public Library of Science,
|Publish Date:|| 2020-11-19
Concrete production is globally a major water consumer, and in general, drinking-quality water is mixed in the binder. In the present study, simulated sea water and reverse osmosis reject water were used as batching water for one-part (dry-mix) alkali-activated blast furnace slag mortar. Alkali-activated materials are low-CO₂ alternative binders gaining world-wide acceptance in construction. However, their production requires approximately similar amount of water as regular Portland cement concrete. The results of the present study revealed that the use of saline water did not hinder strength development, increased setting time, and did not affect workability. The salts incorporated in the binder decreased the total porosity of mortar, but they did not form separate phases detectable with X-ray diffraction or scanning electron microscopy. Leaching tests for monolithic materials revealed only minimal leaching. Furthermore, results for crushed mortars (by a standard two-stage leaching test) were within the limits of non-hazardous waste. Thus, the results indicated that high-salinity waters can be used safely in one-part alkali-activated slag to prepare high-strength mortars. Moreover, alkali-activation technology could be used as a novel stabilization/solidification method for reverse osmosis reject waters, which frequently pose disposal problems.
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
116 Chemical sciences
212 Civil and construction engineering
215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Author name not applicable, grant number #292526, Academy of Finland, https://www.aka.fi/en/, funder did not play any role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Tero Luukkonen, grant number #315103, Academy of Finland, https://www.aka.fi/en/, funder did not play any role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Juho Yliniemi, grant number #322786, Academy of Finland, https://www.aka.fi/en/, funder did not play any role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
|Academy of Finland Grant Number:||
292526 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
315103 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
322786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
© 2020 Luukkonen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.