University of Oulu

Ye, L., Shi, J., Ferdinando, H. et al. A Multi-sensor School Violence Detecting Method Based on Improved Relief-F and D-S Algorithms. Mobile Netw Appl 25, 1655–1662 (2020).

A multi-sensor school violence detecting method based on improved relief-F and D-S algorithms

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Author: Ye, Liang1,2; Shi, Jifu1; Ferdinando, Hany2,3;
Organizations: 1Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No.2 Yikuang Street, Harbin 150080, China
2Health and Wellness Measurement research group, OPEM unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, Oulu 90014, Finland
3Department of Electrical Engineering, Petra Christian University, Siwalankerto 121 - 131, Surabaya 60236, Indonesia
4Physiological Signal Analysis Team, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, Oulu 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-07-14


School bullying is a common social problem, and school violence is considered to be the most harmful form of school bullying. Fortunately, with the development of movement sensors and pattern recognition techniques, it is possible to detect school violence with artificial intelligence. This paper proposes a school violence detecting method based on improved Relief-F and Dempster-Shafe (D-S) algorithms. Two movement sensors are fixed on the object’s waist and leg, respectively, to gather acceleration and gyro data. Altogether nine kinds of activities are gathered, including three kinds of school violence and six kinds of daily-life activities. After wavelet filtering, 39 time-domain features and 12 frequency-domain features are extracted. To reduce computational cost, this paper proposes an improved Relief-F algorithm which selects features according to classification contribution and correlation. By drawing boxplots of the selected features, the authors find that the frequency-domain energy of the y-axis of acceleration can distinguish jumping from other activities. Therefore, the authors build a two-layer classifier. The first layer is a decision tree which separates jumping from other activities, and the second layer is a Radial Basis Function (RBF) neutral network which classifies the remainder eight kinds of activities. Since the two movement sensors work independently, this paper proposes an improved D-S algorithm for decision layer fusion. The improved D-S algorithm designs a new probability distribution function on the evidence model and builds a new fusion rule, which solves the problem of fusion collision. According to the simulation results, the proposed method has increased the recognition accuracy compared with the authors’ previous work. 89.6% of school violence and 95.1% of daily-life activities were correctly recognized. The accuracy reached 93.6% and the precision reached 87.8%, which were 29.9% and 2.7% higher than the authors’ previous work, respectively.

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Series: Mobile networks and applications
ISSN: 1383-469X
ISSN-E: 1572-8153
ISSN-L: 1383-469X
Volume: 25
Issue: 5
Pages: 1655 - 1662
DOI: 10.1007/s11036-020-01575-7
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61602127 and 4181101180), with significant contributions by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Indonesia (2142/E4.4/K/2013) and by the North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund of the Finnish Cultural Foundation.
Copyright information: © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Mobile networks and applications. The final authenticated version is available online at: