University of Oulu

Leviäkangas, P., Kauppila, O. (2020) Digitalisation of industries: a comparative analysis from Australia and Finland. International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 20 (1), 70.

Digitalisation of industries : a comparative analysis from Australia and Finland

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Author: Leviäkangas, Pekka1,2; Kauppila, Osmo3
Organizations: 1VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Smart Industry and Energy Systems P.O. Box 1100, 90571 Oulu, Finland
2Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014, Finland
3Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Inderscience, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-02-04


This paper features a two-country study on digitalisation: Australia and Finland. The empirical data was acquired from the national accounts for 1995–2015 in Australia and for 1998–2012 in Finland. This data was averaged for a cross-sectional comparison of industries and then for the two countries. Different industries’ advancement in digitalisation seems to follow approximately the same pacing in both countries. Financial and insurance services, telecommunications and media, and professional, technical and scientific services are the most active digitalisers. The empirical testing of the a priori assumption that digitalisation over a long period of time leads to greater productivity shows that the observed correlation between information and communication technology (ICT) investment and productivity is weak. The results partly confirm Solow’s productivity paradox.

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Series: International journal of technology, policy and management
ISSN: 1468-4322
ISSN-E: 1741-5292
ISSN-L: 1468-4322
Volume: 20
Issue: 1
Pages: 70 - 89
DOI: 10.1504/IJTPM.2020.104868
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 222 Other engineering and technologies
Dataset Reference: The data used in this study is openly available from the databases of Statistics Finland,, and the Australian Bureau of Statistics
Copyright information: © 2020 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. The final authenticated version is available online at