University of Oulu

Falah, M.; MacKenzie, K.J.D. Photocatalytic Nanocomposite Materials Based on Inorganic Polymers (Geopolymers): A Review. Catalysts 2020, 10, 1158.

Photocatalytic nanocomposite materials based on inorganic polymers (geopolymers) : a review

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Author: Falah, Mahroo1; MacKenzie, Kenneth J. D.2
Organizations: 1Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2MacDiarmid Institute for MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 2820, New Zealand
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-12-03


Geopolymers are ecologically-friendly inorganic materials which can be produced at low temperatures from industrial wastes such as fly ash, blast furnace slags or mining residues. Although to date their principal applications have been seen as alternatives to Portland cement building materials, their properties make them suitable for a number of more advanced applications, including as photocatalytic nanocomposites for removal of hazardous pollutants from waste water or the atmosphere. For this purpose, they can be combined with photocatalytic moieties such as metal oxides with suitable bandgaps to couple with UV or visible radiation, or with carbon nanotubes or graphene. In these composites the geopolymers act as supports for the photoactive components, but geopolymers formed from wastes containing oxides such as Fe2O3 show intrinsic photoactive behaviour. This review discusses the structure and formation chemistry of geopolymers and the principles required for their utilisation as photocatalysts. The literature on existing photocatalytic geopolymers is reviewed, suggesting that these materials have a promising potential as inexpensive, efficient and ecologically-friendly candidates for the remediation of toxic environmental pollutants and would repay further development.

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Series: Catalysts
ISSN: 2073-4344
ISSN-E: 2073-4344
ISSN-L: 2073-4344
Volume: 10
Issue: 10
Article number: 1158
DOI: 10.3390/catal10101158
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (