University of Oulu

Pilotto, F., Kühn, I., Adrian, R. et al. Meta-analysis of multidecadal biodiversity trends in Europe. Nat Commun 11, 3486 (2020).

Meta-analysis of multidecadal biodiversity trends in Europe

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Author: Pilotto, Francesca1,2,3; Kuehn, Ingolf4,5,6; Adrian, Rita7,8;
Organizations: 1Senckenberg Res Inst, Gelnhausen, Germany.
2Nat Hist Museum, Gelnhausen, Germany.
3Umea Univ, Dept Hist Philosoph & Religious Studies, Environm Archaeol Lab, Umea, Sweden.
4UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Dept Community Ecol, Halle, Germany.
5Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Geobot & Bot Garden, Halle, Germany.
6German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Leipzig, Germany.
7Free Univ Berlin, Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Ecosyst Res, Berlin, Germany.
8Free Univ Berlin, Dept Biol Chem & Pharm, Berlin, Germany.
9Agcy Environm & Climate Protect, Biol Lab, Bolzano, Italy.
10INRAE Inst Agro ESA, UMR 0980 BAGAP, Rennes, France.
11LTSER Zone Atelier Armor, F-35042 Rennes, France.
12UK Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland.
13Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, Inst Atmospher & Earth Syst Res, Helsinki, Finland.
14Univ Toulouse, INRAE, Dynafor, Toulouse, France.
15Sorbonne Univ, Museum Natl Hist Nat, CESCO, Paris, France.
16LTSER Zone Atelier Pyrenees Garonne, Auzeville Tolosane, France.
17Rothamsted Res, Okehampton, Devon, England.
18Hasselt Univ, Ctr Environm Sci, Hasselt, Belgium.
19Forest Res, Farnham, Surrey, England.
20Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Dept Ecosyst Biol & Soil & Water Res Infrastruct, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
21Czech Acad Sci, Ctr Biol, Inst Entomol, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
22CNRS, UMR7372, CEBC, F-79360 Villiers En Bois, France.
23La Rochelle Univ, F-79360 Villiers En Bois, France.
24LTSER Zone Atelier Plaine & Val Sevre, F-79360 Beauvoir Sur Niort, France.
25CNR, Inst Marine Sci, Venice, Italy.
26Univ Camerino, Unit Plant Divers & Ecosyst Management, Sch Biosci & Vet Med, Camerino, Italy.
27Univ Porto, Interdisciplinary Ctr Marine & Environm Res, CIIMAR, Porto, Portugal.
28Sovon Dutch Ctr Field Ornithol, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
29Flanders Marine Inst, Oostende, Belgium.
30Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, Sofia, Bulgaria.
31Lancaster Environm Ctr, UK Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Lancaster, England.
32Inst Pirenaico Ecol CSIC, Jaca, Spain.
33Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
34Forest Res Inst, Dept Nat Forests, Bialowieza, Poland.
35Ramat Hanadiv, Zikhron Yaakov, Israel.
36Inst Landscape Ecol SAS, Branch Nitra, Slovakia.
37MTA Ctr Ecol Res, Inst Ecol & Bot, Vacratot, Hungary.
38Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Yerseke, Netherlands.
39Univ Utrecht, Yerseke, Netherlands.
40Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol & Genet, Oulu, Finland.
41Univ Oulu, Infrastruct Platform, Oulanka Res Stn, Kuusamo, Finland.
42Univ Warsaw, Fac Biol, Bialowieza Geobot Stn, Bialowieza, Poland.
43NINA Oslo, Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Oslo, Norway.
44Inst Landscape Ecol SAS, Bratislava, Slovakia.
45Univ Copenhagen, Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark.
46Marine Res Dept, Senckenberg Meer, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
47Kainuu Ctr Econ Dev Transport & Environm, Kajaani, Finland.
48Univ Coimbra, Dept Life Sci, Ctr Funct Ecol CFE, Coimbra, Portugal.
49Northwest German Forest Res Inst, Gottingen, Germany.
50Autonomous Prov Bolzano South Tyrol, Forest Serv, Bolzano, Italy.
51CEAB CSIC, Blanes 17300, Spain.
52IMEDEA CSIC UIB, Esporles 07190, Spain.
53Univ Latvia, Inst Biol, Salaspils, Latvia.
54Univ Sassari, Dipartimento Architettura Design & Urbanist, Sassari, Italy.
55UK Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Wallingford, Oxon, England.
56Castel Sangro Biodivers Unit, Carabinieri Biodivers & Pk Protect Dept, Laquila, Italy.
57ZRC SAZU Karst Res Inst, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
58Univ Nova Gor, Karst Educ, Vipava, Slovenia.
59Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Biodivers Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
60Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
61Norwegian Inst Water Res, Oslo, Norway.
62James Hutton Inst, Ecol Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland.
63Univ Appl Sci Trier, Environm Campus Birkenfeld, Birkenfeld, Germany.
64Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany.
65Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Gothenburg, Sweden.
66Flanders Res Inst Agr Fishery & Food, Oostende, Belgium.
67Res Inst Nat & Forest, Brussels, Belgium.
68Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-12-03


Local biodiversity trends over time are likely to be decoupled from global trends, as local processes may compensate or counteract global change. We analyze 161 long-term biological time series (15–91 years) collected across Europe, using a comprehensive dataset comprising ~6,200 marine, freshwater and terrestrial taxa. We test whether (i) local long-term biodiversity trends are consistent among biogeoregions, realms and taxonomic groups, and (ii) changes in biodiversity correlate with regional climate and local conditions. Our results reveal that local trends of abundance, richness and diversity differ among biogeoregions, realms and taxonomic groups, demonstrating that biodiversity changes at local scale are often complex and cannot be easily generalized. However, we find increases in richness and abundance with increasing temperature and naturalness as well as a clear spatial pattern in changes in community composition (i.e. temporal taxonomic turnover) in most biogeoregions of Northern and Eastern Europe.

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Series: Nature communications
ISSN: 2041-1723
ISSN-E: 2041-1723
ISSN-L: 2041-1723
Volume: 11
Issue: 1
Article number: 3486
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-17171-y
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Funding: We are grateful to the ILTER network and the eLTER PLUS project (Grand Agreement No. 871128) for financial support. We acknowledge the E-OBS dataset from the EU-FP6 project ENSEMBLES ( and the data providers in the ECA&D project ( The evaluation of forest plant diversity was based on data collected by partners of the official UNECE ICP Forests Network (; part of the data were co-financed by the European Commission, project LIFE 07 ENV/D/000218 “Further Development and Implementation of an EU-level Forest monitoring Systeme (FutMon)”. Data on wintering water birds in Bulgaria were provided by the national Executive Environment Agency with the Ministry of Environment and Waters. Data from the Finnish moth monitoring scheme were supported by the Finnish Ministry of the Environment. Data from the Swedish ICP Integrated Monitoring sites were financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Data collection at Esthwaite Water and a subset of UK ECN sites was supported by Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCaPE programme delivering National Capability. Sponsorship of other UK ECN sites contributing data was provided by Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs, Natural Resources Wales, Defense Science Technology Laboratory, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Forest Research, the James Hutton Institute (The Rural & Environment Science & Analytical Services Division of the Scottish Government), Natural England, Rothamsted Research, Scottish Government, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Welsh Government. Data from the Mondego estuary (Portugal) were supported by the Centre for Functional Ecology Strategic Project (UID/BIA/04004/2019) within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and COMPETE 2020, and by FEDER through the project ReNATURE (Centro 2020, Centro-01-765-0145-FEDER-000007). We would like to thank Limburgse Koepel voor Natuurstudie (LiKoNa) for the data related to the National Park Hoge Kempen (BE). We would like to acknowledge the support for the long-term monitoring program MONEOS in the Scheldt estuary (BE) by ‘De Vlaamse Waterweg’ and ‘Maritieme Toegang’ (Flemish government). We are grateful to the board of the National Park “De Hoge Veluwe” for the permission to conduct our research on their property. We thank Ian J. Winfield and Terje Bongard for contributing data for the sites: Bassenthwaite Lake, Derwent Water (UK) and Atna River (Norway, freshwater invertebrate time series). Open access funding provided by Umeå University.
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