University of Oulu

Acciari, V. A., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Arbet Engels, A., Baack, D., Babić, A., Banerjee, B., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bellizzi, L., Bernardini, E., Berti, A., Besenrieder, J., Bhattacharyya, W., Bigongiari, C., … Biland, A. (2020). Broadband characterisation of the very intense TeV flares of the blazar 1ES 1959+650 in 2016. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 638, A14.

Broadband characterisation of the very intense TeV flares of the blazar 1ES 1959+650 in 2016

Saved in:
Author: Acciari, V. A.1,2; Ansoldi, S.3,4,5,6,7,8; Antonelli, L. A.9;
Engels, A. Arbet10; Baack, D.11; Babic, A.12,13,14,15,16; Banerjee, B.17; Barres de Almeida, U.18; Barrio, J. A.19; Becerra Gonzalez, J.1,2; Bednarek, W.20; Bellizzi, L.21,22; Bernardini, E.23,24,25,26; Berti, A.27,28; Besenrieder, J.29; Bhattacharyya, W.23; Bigongiari, C.9; Biland, A.10; Blanch, O.30; Bonnoli, G.21,22; Bosnjak, Z.12,13,14,15,16; Busetto, G.24,25; Carosi, R.31,32; Ceribella, G.29; Chai, Y.29; Cikota, S.12,13,14,15,16; Colak, S. M.30; Colin, U.29; Colombo, E.1,2; Contreras, J. L.19; Cortina, J.30; Covino, S.9; D'Elia, V.9; Da Vela, P.31,32; Dazzi, F.9; De Angelis, A.24,25; De Lotto, B.3,4; Delfino, M.30,33; Delgado, J.30,33; Di Pierro, F.27; Do Souto Espineira, E.30; Prester, D. Dominis12,13,14,15,16; Donini, A.3,4; Dorner, D.34; Doro, M.24,25; Elsaesser, D.11; Ramazani, V. Fallah35,36,37; Fattorini, A.11; Fernandez-Barral, A.24,25; Ferrara, G.9; Fidalgo, D.19; Foffano, L.24,25; Fonseca, M. V.19; Font, L.38,39; Fruck, C.29; Fukami, S.5,6,7,8; Gallozzi, S.9; Garcia Lopez, R. J.1,2; Garczarczyk, M.23; Gasparyan, S.40; Gaug, M.38,39; Godinovic, N.12,13,14,15,16; Green, D.29; Guberman, D.30; Hadasch, D.5,6,7,8; Hahn, A.29; Herrera, J.1,2; Hoang, J.19; Hrupec, D.12,13,14,15,16; Inada, T.5,6,7,8; Inoue, S.5,6,7,8; Ishio, K.29; Iwamura, Y.5,6,7,8; Jouvin, L.30; Kubo, H.5,6,7,8; Kushida, J.5,6,7,8; Lamastra, A.9; Lelas, D.12,13,14,15,16; Leone, F.9; Lindfors, E.35,36,37; Lombardi, S.9; Longo, F.3,4,28; Lopez, M.19; Lopez-Coto, R.24,25; Lopez-Oramas, A.1,2; Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B.18; Maggio, C.38,39; Majumdar, P.17; Makariev, M.41; Mallamaci, M.24,25; Maneva, G.41; Manganaro, M.12,13,14,15,16; Mannheim, K.34; Maraschi, L.9; Mariotti, M.24,25; Martinez, M.30; Masuda, S.5,6,7,8; Mazin, D.29,5,6,7,8; Micanovic, S.12,13,14,15,16; Miceli, D.3,4; Minev, M.41; Miranda, J. M.21,22; Mirzoyan, R.29; Molina, E.42; Moralejo, A.30; Morcuende, D.19; Moreno, V.38,39; Moretti, E.30; Munar-Adrover, P.38,39; Neustroev, V.35,36,37; Niedzwiecki, A.20; Nigro, C.23; Nilsson, K.35,36,37; Ninci, D.30; Nishijima, K.5,6,7,8; Noda, K.5,6,7,8; Nogues, L.30; Nothe, M.11; Nozaki, S.5,6,7,8; Paiano, S.24,25; Palacio, J.30; Palatiello, M.3,4; Paneque, D.29; Paoletti, R.21,22; Paredes, J. M.42; Penil, P.19; Peresano, M.3,4; Persic, M.3,4,43,44; Moroni, P. G. Prada31,32; Prandini, E.24,25; Puljak, I.12,13,14,15,16; Rhode, W.11; Ribo, M.42; Rico, J.30; Righi, C.9; Rugliancich, A.31,32; Saha, L.19; Sahakyan, N.40; Saito, T.5,6,7,8; Sakurai, S.5,6,7,8; Satalecka, K.23; Schweizer, T.29; Sitarek, J.20; Snidaric, I.12,13,14,15,16; Sobczynska, D.20; Somero, A.1,2; Stamerra, A.9; Strom, D.29; Strzys, M.29; Suric, T.12,13,14,15,16; Takahashi, M.5,6,7,8; Tavecchio, F.9; Temnikov, P.41; Terzic, T.12,13,14,15,16; Teshima, M.29,5,6,7,8; Torres-Alba, N.42; Tsujimoto, S.5,6,7,8; van Scherpenberg, J.29; Vanzo, G.1,2; Vazquez Acosta, M.1,2; Vovk, I.29; Will, M.29; Zaric, D.12,13,14,15,16; Hayashida, M.45
Organizations: 1Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.
2Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain.
3Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
4INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
5Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
6Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
7Tokai Univ, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.
8RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan.
9Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
10Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
11Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
12Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
13Univ Split FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
14Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
15Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.
16Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
17Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, W Bengal, India.
18Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fisicas CBPF, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
19Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, Madrid 28040, Spain.
20Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
21Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
22INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
23Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
24Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
25INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
26Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
27Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Rome, Italy.
28Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
29Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
30Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Barcelona 08193, Spain.
31Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
32INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
33Port Informacio Cientif PIC, Barcelona 08193, Spain.
34Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
35Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Turku 20014, Finland.
36Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Turku 20014, Finland.
37Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland.
38Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.
39Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.
40NAS RA, ICRANet Armenia, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.
41Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria.
42Univ Barcelona, ICCUB, IEEC UB, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
43Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, Bologna, Italy.
44Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy.
45Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, Tokyo 1718501, Japan.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: EDP Sciences, 2020
Publish Date: 2020-12-04


1ES 1959+650 is a bright TeV high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object exhibiting interesting features like “orphan” TeV flares and broad emission in the high-energy regime that are difficult to interpret using conventional one-zone Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) scenarios. We report the results from the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) observations in 2016 along with the multi-wavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and Swift instruments. MAGIC observed 1ES 1959+650 with different emission levels in the very-high-energy (VHE, E >  100 GeV) γ-ray band during 2016. In the long-term data, the X-ray spectrum becomes harder with increasing flux and a hint of a similar trend is also visible in the VHE band. An exceptionally high VHE flux reaching ∼3 times the Crab Nebula flux was measured by MAGIC on the 13 and 14 of June, and 1 July 2016 (the highest flux observed since 2002). During these flares, the high-energy peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) lies in the VHE domain and extends up to several TeV. The spectrum in the γ-ray (both Fermi-LAT and VHE bands) and the X-ray bands are quite hard. On 13 June and 1 July 2016, the source showed rapid variations in the VHE flux within timescales of less than an hour. A simple one-zone SSC model can describe the data during the flares requiring moderate to large values of the Doppler factors (δ ≥ 30−60). Alternatively, the high-energy peak of the SED can be explained by a purely hadronic model attributed to proton-synchrotron radiation with jet power Ljet ∼ 10⁴⁶ erg s⁻¹ and under high values of the magnetic field strength (∼100 G) and maximum proton energy (∼few EeV). Mixed lepto-hadronic models require super-Eddington values of the jet power. We conclude that it is difficult to get detectable neutrino emission from the source during the extreme VHE flaring period of 2016.

see all

Series: Astronomy and astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
ISSN-E: 1432-0746
ISSN-L: 0004-6361
Volume: 638
Article number: A14
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201935450
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2015-69818-P, FPA2012-36668, FPA2015- 68378-P, FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-6-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2015-71662-C2-2-P, FPA2017-90566-REDC), the Indian Department of Atomic Energy, the Japanese JSPS and MEXT and the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-153/28.08.2018 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia “Severo Ochoa” SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu” MDM-2014-0369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A.Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d’Études Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Copyright information: © ESO 2020.