University of Oulu

Terrasi, F., Marzaioli, F., Buompane, R., Passariello, I., Porzio, G., Capano, M., ...Usoskin, I. (2020). CAN THE 14C PRODUCTION IN 1055 CE BE AFFECTED BY SN1054? Radiocarbon, 62(5), 1403-1418. doi:10.1017/RDC.2020.58

Can the ¹⁴C production in 1054 CE be affected by SN1054?

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Author: Terrasi, F1,2; Marzaioli, F1,2; Buompane, R1,2;
Organizations: 1CIRCE, Department of Mathematics and Physics, Campania University“L. Vanvitelli”, Caserta, andINFN Napoli, Italy
2INNOVA SCaRL, Pozzuoli (NA), Italy
3CEREGE, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Collège de France, Technopôle de l’Arbois,Aix-en-Provence, France
4Natural Resources Institute Finland, Rovaniemi, Finland
5Finnish Museum of Natural History–LUOMUS, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
6Natural Resources Institute Finland, Espoo, Finland
7Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
8Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
9University of Arizona AMS Laboratory, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
10Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Isotope Climatology and Environmental Research Centre (ICER),Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen 4026, Hungary
11Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
12A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
13Space Climate Research Unit and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Cambridge University Press, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-02-18


Annually resolved radiocarbon (¹⁴C) measurements on tree rings led to the discovery of abrupt variations in ¹⁴C production attributed to large solar flares. We present new results of annual and subannual ¹⁴C fluctuations in tree rings from a middle-latitude sequoia (California) and a high-latitude pine (Finland), analyzed for the period 1030–1080 CE, to trace a possible impact of the Crab supernova explosion, occurring during the Oort minimum of solar activity. Our results indicate an increase of Δ¹⁴C around 1054/55 CE, which we estimate is higher in magnitude than the cyclic variability due to solar activity at a 2σ significance level. The net signal appears to be synchronized in the studied locations. Several sources of this event are possible including γ-rays from the Crab supernova, an unusually weak solar minimum or a solar energetic particle incident. More data are needed to provide more insight into the origin of this ¹⁴C event.

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Series: Radiocarbon
ISSN: 0033-8222
ISSN-E: 1945-5755
ISSN-L: 0033-8222
Volume: 62
Issue: 5
Pages: 1403 - 1418
DOI: 10.1017/RDC.2020.58
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 117 Geography and environmental sciences
Funding: The work of S. Helama, M. Oinonen, P. Nöjd and J. Uusitalo was supported by the Academy of Finland (grants 288083 and 288267). Work by G. Kovaltsov, S. Poluianov and I. Usoskin was partially supported by the Academy of Finland (Project ESPERA 321882). A.J.T. Jull, M. Molnar and T. Varga acknowledge partial support by the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund in the project GINOP-2.3.2.-15-2016-00009 “ICER”.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. The final authenticated version is available online at