University of Oulu

Siamak Seyfi, Colin Michael Hall & Tan Vo-Thanh (2022) The gendered effects of statecraft on women in tourism: Economic sanctions, women’s disempowerment and sustainability?, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30:7, 1736-1753, DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1850749

The gendered effects of statecraft on women in tourism : economic sanctions, women’s disempowerment and sustainability?

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Author: Seyfi, Siamak1; Hall, C. Michael2,3,4,5; Vo-Thanh, Tan6
Organizations: 1Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
2Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
3School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
4Department of Geography, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
6Excelia Business School, CERIIM & CEREGE (EA 1722)
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Informa, 2022
Publish Date: 2020-12-16


Despite sanctions being one of the most common and far-reaching forms of economic statecraft, there is a notable absence of research on the gendered effects of economic sanctions on women’s empowerment in general, and more particularly in relation to tourism. This is surprising given that the burden of economic sanctions is overwhelmingly felt by women due to their vulnerable socio-economic and political status in targeted countries. Drawing upon a disciplinary base in international relations and political science and using a gendered lens via a series of interviews, this study sought to explore the gendered effects of economic sanctions on Iranian women’s empowerment in the country’s tourism and hospitality industry. The study’s findings indicate that sanctions have negatively affected and deteriorated economic, psychological, social and political aspects of women empowerment. The results highlight the vulnerability of empowerment within the religio-patriarchal society of Iran. As such economic empowerment is recognized as a major contributor to the overall empowerment of women in Iran which is therefore severely affected by sanctions. Overall, this study fills a significant gap in tourism research by highlighting the gendered implications of a ubiquitous state tool of coercive diplomacy and foreign policy and its effects on women’s empowerment.

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Series: Journal of sustainable tourism
ISSN: 0966-9582
ISSN-E: 1747-7646
ISSN-L: 0966-9582
Volume: 30
Issue: 7
Pages: 1736 - 1753
DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1850749
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Copyright information: © 2020 Taylor & Francis. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Sustainable Tourism on 24 Nov 2020, available online: